Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

High-energy physics

Into the fifth dimension

Particles such as the proton can be imagined as vibrating strings. We also know that protons contain smaller, point-like particles, going against the string theory. But in five dimensions, the contradiction disappears.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Strings, particles and extra dimensions.


  1. Polchinski, J. & Strassler, M. J. High Energy Phys. 05(2003)012.

  2. 't Hooft, G. Nucl. Phys. B 72, 461–473 (1974).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Maldacena, J. Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231–252 (1998).

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  4. Gubser, S., Klebanov, I. & Polyakov, A. Phys. Lett. B 428, 105–114 (1998).

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Witten, E. Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253–291 (1998).

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Juan Maldacena.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Maldacena, J. Into the fifth dimension. Nature 423, 695–696 (2003).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing