Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Positively negative

An artificially created material with negative refractive index has opened the door to new phenomena — and controversy. New work finally sets the seal of experimental confirmation on negative refraction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1: Negative refraction.
Figure 2: Negative refraction confirmed.


  1. Veselago, V. G. Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  2. Shelby, R. A., Smith, D. R. & Schultz, S. Science 292, 77–79 (2001).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Parazzoli, C. G., Greegor, R. B., Li, K., Koltenbah, B. E. C. & Tanielian, M. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Houck, A. A., Brock, J. B. & Chuang, I. L. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. Pendry, J. B., Holden, A. J., Stewart, W. J. & Youngs, I. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Pendry, J. B., Holden, A. J., Robbins, D. J. & Stewart, W. J. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techniques 47, 2075–2084 (1999).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. Smith, D. R., Padilla, W. J., Vier, D. C., Nemat-Nasser, S. C. & Schultz, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187 (2000).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Valanju, P. M., Walser, R. M. & Valanju, A. P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401 (2002).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Foteinopoulou, S., Economou, E. N. & Soukoulis, C. M. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to John Pendry.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pendry, J. Positively negative. Nature 423, 22–23 (2003).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing