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A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate

Abstract

Large seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries in the martian climate system are generally ascribed to variations in solar heating associated with orbital eccentricity1. As the orbital elements slowly change (over a period of >104 years), characteristics of the climate such as dustiness and the vigour of atmospheric circulation are thought to vary2,3,4,5, as should asymmetries in the climate (for example, the deposition of water ice at the northern versus the southern pole). Such orbitally driven climate change might be responsible for the observed layering in Mars' polar deposits by modulating deposition of dust and water ice3,5,6. Most current theories assume that climate asymmetries completely reverse as the angular distance between equinox and perihelion changes by 180°. Here we describe a major climate mechanism that will not precess in this way. We show that Mars' global north–south elevation difference forces a dominant southern summer Hadley circulation that is independent of perihelion timing. The Hadley circulation, a tropical overturning cell responsible for trade winds, largely controls interhemispheric transport of water and the bulk dustiness of the atmosphere7,8,9,10,11. The topography therefore imprints a strong handedness on climate, with water ice and the active formation of polar layered deposits more likely in the north.

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Figure 1: Mars GCM output illustrating the Hadley circulation's strong control of water vapour transport and the global mixing of dust.
Figure 2: Mars GCM output demonstrating the annual-average bias in the tropical circulation, and that this bias is related to topography rather than the eccentric orbit of the planet.

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Acknowledgements

Discussions were provided by K. Emanuel, I. Held, A. Ingersoll, T. Schneider, and Y. Yung. We thank P. Gierasch for comments on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mark I. Richardson.

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Richardson, M., Wilson, R. A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate. Nature 416, 298–301 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/416298a

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