Brain-machine interface

Instant neural control of a movement signal

Hands-free operation of a cursor can be achieved by a few neurons in the motor cortex.


The activity of motor cortex (MI) neurons conveys movement intent sufficiently well to be used as a control signal to operate artificial devices1,2,3, but until now this has called for extensive training or has been confined to a limited movement repertoire2,3. Here we show how activity from a few (7–30) MI neurons can be decoded into a signal that a monkey is able to use immediately to move a computer cursor to any new position in its workspace (14° × 14° visual angle). Our results, which are based on recordings made by an electrode array that is suitable for human use4,5, indicate that neurally based control of movement may eventually be feasible in paralysed humans.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Performance of a target acquisition using hand or neural control.


  1. 1

    Wessberg, J. et al. Nature 408, 361–365 (2000).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Taylor, D. M. & Schwartz, A. B. Proc. 6th Annu. Conf. Intl Functl Elec. Stim. Soc. 132–134 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Chapin, J. K., Moxon, K. A., Markowitz, R. S. & Nicolelis, M. A. Nature Neurosci. 2, 664–670 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Maynard, E. M., Nordhausen, C. T. & Normann, R. A. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 102, 228–239 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Kennedy, P. R. & Bakay, R. A. NeuroReport 9, 1707–1711 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Maynard, E. M. et al. J. Neurosci. 19, 8083–8093 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Paninski, L., Fellows, M. R., Hatsopoulos, N. G. & Donoghue, J. P. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 665.9 (1999).

  8. 8

    Paninski, L., Fellows, M. R., Hatsopoulos, N. G. & Donoghue, J. P. J. Neurosci. (submitted).

  9. 9

    Serruya, M. D., Paninski, L., Fellows, M. R., Hatsopoulos, N. G. & Donoghue, J. P. Biol. Cybern. (in the press).

Download references

Author information



Ethics declarations

Competing interests

M.D. Serruya, N.G. Hatsopoulos, and J.P. Donoghue are founders and major stockholders of a Cyberkinetics, Inc. The purpose of this company is to promote the development of neural prosthetic devices. The company was founded June, 2001 and has not product, granted patents or intelluctual property at this time. All five authors are co-inventors on a Brown University patent which has just been submitted (November 2001) for review. This patent is related to the work described in this report. The research reported in our article was performed by Brown University faculty and students and was funded only by a NIH/NINDS contract to JPD.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Serruya, M., Hatsopoulos, N., Paninski, L. et al. Instant neural control of a movement signal. Nature 416, 141–142 (2002).

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing