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The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes

A Corrigendum to this article was published on 28 November 2006

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, starting in early childhood and persisting into adulthood in the majority of cases. Family and twin studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors and candidate gene association studies have identified several loci that exert small but significant effects on ADHD. To provide further clarification of reported associations and identify novel associated genes, we examined 1038 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 51 candidate genes involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter pathways, particularly dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin pathways, in addition to circadian rhythm genes. Analysis used within family tests of association in a sample of 776 DSM-IV ADHD combined type cases ascertained for the International Multi-centre ADHD Gene project. We found nominal significance with one or more SNPs in 18 genes, including the two most replicated findings in the literature: DRD4 and DAT1. Gene-wide tests, adjusted for the number of SNPs analysed in each gene, identified associations with TPH2, ARRB2, SYP, DAT1, ADRB2, HES1, MAOA and PNMT. Further studies will be needed to confirm or refute the observed associations and their generalisability to other samples.

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Acknowledgements

The IMAGE project is a multisite, international effort supported by NIH Grant R01MH62873 to SV Faraone. Site Principal Investigators are Philip Asherson, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan Buitelaar, Richard P Ebstein, Stephen V Faraone, Michael Gill, Ana Miranda, Robert D Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Aribert Rothenberger, Joseph Sergeant, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, and Hans-Christoph Steinhausen. Senior co-investigators are Margaret Thompson, Pak Sham, Peter McGuffin, Robert Plomin, Ian Craig and Eric Taylor. Chief Investigators at each site are Rafaela Marco, Nanda Rommelse, Fernando Mulas, Wai Chen, Henrik Uebel, Hanna Christiansen, U Mueller, Cathelijne Buschgens, Barbara Franke, Lamprini Psychogiou. Other investigators are Marieke Altink, Ellen Fliers, Ruud Minderaa and Alysa Doyle. We thank all the families who kindly participated in this research.

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Correspondence to P Asherson.

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Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on the Molecular Psychiatry website (http://www.nature.com/mp).

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Brookes, K., Xu, X., Chen, W. et al. The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes. Mol Psychiatry 11, 934–953 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001869

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Keywords

  • ADHD
  • association study
  • dopamine
  • noradrenaline
  • serotonin
  • candidate gene
  • linkage disequilibrium

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