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Development and validation of the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire in erectile dysfunction

Abstract

Development and validation of a patient-reported measure of psychosocial variables in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) is described. Literature review, focus groups, and medical specialists identified 86 potential items. Redundant, ambiguous, or low item-to-total correlation items were removed. Data from 98 men reporting diagnosed ED and 94 controls assisted in final item selection and psychometric evaluation. Treatment responsiveness was evaluated in 93 men with ED in a 10-week open-label trial of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®). The 14 chosen items resolved into two domains: Sexual Relationship (eight items) and Confidence (six items), the latter comprising Self-Esteem (four items) and Overall Relationship (two items) subscales. The resulting Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire demonstrated validity and reliability. The intervention study demonstrated responsiveness to beneficial treatment with significant improvement in scores (P=0.0001). The SEAR questionnaire possesses strong psychometric properties that support its validity and reliability for measuring sexual relationship, confidence, and particularly self-esteem.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Sabina Gasper and Karen Macdonald for their helpful contributions during the early stages of instrument development. We also thank Joyce Healey, Janet Matsuura, and Peter Rittenhouse for their editorial assistance. In addition, we are grateful to Caryn Diuguid, Dale Glasser, Vera Stecher, and Michael Sweeney for their valuable contributions and support throughout the project.

Supported by Pfizer Inc.

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Correspondence to J C Cappelleri.

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Cappelleri, J., Althof, S., Siegel, R. et al. Development and validation of the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire in erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 16, 30–38 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901095

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901095

Keywords

  • erectile dysfunction
  • quality of life
  • questionnaire development
  • reliability
  • self-esteem
  • validation

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