Letter | Published:

Hard elastic carbon thin films from linking of carbon nanoparticles

Nature volume 383, pages 321323 (26 September 1996) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

HARD carbon thin films find many technological applications—as protective or biocompatible coatings, for instance. A very hard and elastic form of carbon nitride, in which curved graphene sheets are interlinked owing to the presence of small amounts of nitrogen, has recently been reported1. The hardness of these films is thought to arise from the presence of sp3-like bonds that introduce curvature into and bind together the sp2-bonded graphitic planes, rather as they do in hard, highly tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon films2–4. Here we show that hard, elastic thin films of pure carbon can be created by depositing closed, hollow graphitic carbon nanoparticles—nanotubes5 and carbon onions6—onto a substrate at high velocity. The particles are apparently disrupted on impact, causing them to link up. Electron-energy-loss spectra reveal a reduction in π (sp2) bonding in the intersecting regions of the nanoparticles, supporting the idea that they are covalently linked by tetrahedral sp3 bonds.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , , & Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1336–1339 (1995).

  2. 2.

    , & Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 773–776 (1991).

  3. 3.

    et al. Phys. Rev. B 48, 4777–4782 (1993).

  4. 4.

    et al. Diamond Relat. Mater. 3, 41–46 (1994).

  5. 5.

    Nature 354, 56–57 (1991).

  6. 6.

    Nature 359, 707–709 (1992).

  7. 7.

    & Paper presented at Int. Congr. Thin Films & Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, April, 1996.

  8. 8.

    & Phys. Rev. B 52, 2083–2089 (1995).

  9. 9.

    , & Phil. Mag. Lett. 57, 285–288 (1988).

  10. 10.

    , & Carbon 33, 87–92 (1995).

  11. 11.

    , , & J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2089–2092 (1996).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK

    • G. A. J. Amaratunga
    • , M. Chhowalla
    •  & I. Alexandrou
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK

    • C. J. Kiely
    • , I. Alexandrou
    •  & R. M. Devenish
  3. Multi-Arc Inc., 200 Roundhill Drive, Rockaway, New Jersey 07866, USA

    • R. Aharonov

Authors

  1. Search for G. A. J. Amaratunga in:

  2. Search for M. Chhowalla in:

  3. Search for C. J. Kiely in:

  4. Search for I. Alexandrou in:

  5. Search for R. Aharonov in:

  6. Search for R. M. Devenish in:

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/383321a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.