BMP-4-responsive regulation of dorsal–ventral patterning by the homeobox protein Mix.1

Abstract

IN an expression screen for factors that pattern or induce ventral mesoderm, we isolated a complementary DNA encoding Mix.1, a paired class homeobox gene with no previously known function1. Injection of Mix.1 messenger RNA results in extensive blood formation in the whole embryo and transforms dorsal mesoderm to a ventral fate. Mix.1 expression is induced by bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), and a dominant inhibitory mutant of Mix.1 can restore a dorsal axis in embryos ventralized by ectopic BMP-4 expression. Mix.1 can form heterodimers with the dorsalizing gene siamois, which encodes a homeodomain protein that is structurally similar to Mix.1. Furthermore, Mix.1 blocks the duplicated axis induced by ectopic siamois expression. Our findings indicate that Mix.1 participates in a BMP-4 signalling pathway to pattern ventral mesoderm, and suggest a model whereby dimerization of homeodomain proteins regulates dorsal–ventral patterning.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Rosa, F. M. Cell 57, 965–974 (1989).

  2. 2

    Smith, W. C. & Harland, R. M. Cell 67, 753–765 (1991).

  3. 3

    Kao, K. R. & Elinson, R. P. Devl Biol. 127, 64–77 (1988).

  4. 4

    Kelley, C., Yee, K., Harland, R. & Zon, L. Devl Biol. 165, 193–205 (1994).

  5. 5

    Ruizi i Altaba, A. & Melton, D. A. Cell 57, 317–326 (1989).

  6. 6

    Smith, J. C., Price, B. M., Green, J. B., Weigel, D. & Herrmann, B. G. Cell 67, 79–87 (1991).

  7. 7

    Dale, L., Howes, G., Price, B. M. J. & Smith, J. C. Development 115, 573–585 (1992).

  8. 8

    Jones, C. M., Lyons, K. M., Lapan, P. M., Wright, C. V. E. & Hogan, B. L. M. Development 115, 639–647 (1992).

  9. 9

    Smith, W. C. & Harland, R. M. Cell 70, 829–840 (1992).

  10. 10

    Green, J. B. & Smith, J. C. Nature 347, 391–394 (1990).

  11. 11

    Thomsen, G. et al. Cell 63, 485–493 (1990).

  12. 12

    Green, J. B., New, H. V. & Smith, J. C. Cell 71, 731–739 (1992).

  13. 13

    Wilson, D., Sheng, G., Lecuit, T., Dostatni, N. & Desplan, C. Genes Dev. 7, 2120–2134 (1993).

  14. 14

    Wilson, D. S., Guenther, B., Desplan, C. & Kuriyan, J. Cell 82, 709–719 (1995).

  15. 15

    Niehrs, C., Steinbeisser, H. & De Robertis, E. M. Science 263, 817–820 (1994).

  16. 16

    Nieuwkoop, P. D. & Faber, J. Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1967).

  17. 17

    Taira, M., Jamrich, M., Good, P. J. & Dawid, I. B. Genes Dev. 6, 356–366 (1992).

  18. 18

    Fainsod, A., Steinbeisser, H. & De Robertis, E. M. EMBO J. 13, 5015–1025 (1994).

  19. 19

    Lemaire, P., Garrett, N. & Gurdon, J. B. Cell 81, 85–94 (1995).

  20. 20

    Strauss, E. C., Andrews, N. C., Higgs, D. R. & Orkin, S. H. Molec. cell. Biol. 12, 2135–2142 (1992).

  21. 21

    Le Roux, I., Joliot, A. H., Block-Gallego, E., Prochiantz, A. & Volovitch, M. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9120–9124 (1993).

  22. 22

    Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. & Harland, R. M. Development 106, 611–617 (1989).

  23. 23

    Ho, S. N., Hunt, H. D., Horton, R. M., Pullen, J. K. & Pease, L. R. Gene 77, 51–59 (1989).

  24. 24

    Bader, D., Masaki, T. & Fischman, D. A. J. Cell Biol. 95, 763–770 (1982).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mead, P., Brivanlou, I., Kelley, C. et al. BMP-4-responsive regulation of dorsal–ventral patterning by the homeobox protein Mix.1. Nature 382, 357–360 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1038/382357a0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.