WAARDENGURG'S syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant combination of deafness and pigmentary disturbances, probably caused by defective function of the embryonic neural crest1,2. We have mapped one gene for WS to the distal part of chromosome 2 (ref. 3). On the basis of their homologous chromosomal location, their close linkage to an alkaline phosphatase gene, and their related phenotype, we suggested that WS and the mouse mutant Splotch4,5 might be homologous. Splotch is caused by mutation in the mouse Pax-3 gene6,7. This gene is one of a family of eight Pax genes known in mice which are involved in regulating embryonic development; each contains a highly conserved transcription control sequence, the paired box8. Here we show that some families with WS have mutations in the human homologue9 of Pax-3. Mutations in a related gene, Pax-6, which, like Pax-3, has both a paired box and a paired-type homeobox sequence, cause the Small-eye mutation in mice10 and aniridia inman11. Thus mutations in the Pax genes are important causes of human developmental defects.
Access optionsAccess options
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Waardenburg, P. J. Am. J. hum. Genet. 3, 195–253 (1951).
Arias, S. Birth Defects 7, 87–101 (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1971).
Foy, C., Newton, V. E., Wellelley, D., Harris, R. & Read, A. P. Am. J. hum. Genet. 46, 1017–1023 (1990).
Auerbach, R. J. exp. Zool. 127, 305–329 (1954).
Epstein, D. J., Malo, D., Vekemans, M. & Gros, P. Genomics 10, 89–93 (1991).
Goulding, M. D., Chalepakis, G., Deutsch, U., Erselius, J. R. & Gruss, P. EMBO J . 10, 1135–1147 (1991).
Epstein, D. J., Vekemans, M. & Gros, P. Cell 67, 767–774 (1991).
Walther, C. et al. Genomics 11, 424–434 (1991).
Burri, M., Tromvoukis, Y., Bopp, D., Frigerio, G. & Noll, M. EMBO J. 8, 1183–1190 (1989).
Hill, R. E. et al. Nature 354, 522–525 (1991).
Ton, C. C. T. et al. Cell 67, 1059–1074 (1991).
Keen, J., Lester, D., Inglehearn, C., Curtis, A. & Bhattacharya, S. Trends Genet. 7, 5 (1991).
Steel, K. P. & Bock, G. R. Arch. Otolaryngol. 109, 22–29 (1983).
Asher, J. H. & Friedman, T. B. J. med. Genet. 27, 618–626 (1990).
Bopp, D., Burri, M., Baumgartner, S., Frigerio, G. & Noll, M. Cell 47, 1033–1040 (1986).
Deutsch, U., Dressler, G. R. & Gruss, P. Cell 53, 617–625 (1988).
Chalepakis, G. et al. Cell 66, 873–884 (1991).
Collier, S. et al. EMBO J. 8, 1393–1402 (1989).
About this article
Robust Candidates for Language Development and Evolution Are Significantly Dysregulated in the Blood of People With Williams Syndrome
Frontiers in Neuroscience (2019)
Discovery of new depigmenting compounds and their efficacy to treat hyperpigmentation: Evidence from in vitro study
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2019)
Sulfated hyaluronan‐containing artificial extracellular matrices promote proliferation of keratinocytes and melanotic phenotype of melanocytes from the outer root sheath of hair follicles
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A (2019)
Frontiers in Psychology (2019)
Oral Diseases (2019)