Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Ekert, A. Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
Bennett, C. H. et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3081–3084 (1993).
Bennett, C. H. et al. Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1991).
Briegel, H.-J., Duer, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
Knill, E., Laflamme, R. & Zurek, W. H. Resilient quantum computation. Science 279, 342–345 (1998).
Preskill, J. Reliable quantum computers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 454, 385–410 (1998).
Zukowski, M., Zeilinger, A., Horne, M. A. & Ekert, A. “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
Cirac, J. I., Zoller, P., Kimble, H. J. & Mabuchi, H. Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
Enk, S. J., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Photonic channels for quantum communication. Science 279, 205–207 (1998).
Ye, J., Vernooy, D. W. & Kimble, H. J. Trapping of single atoms in cavity QED. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4987–4990 (1999).
Hood, C. J. et al. The atom-cavity microscope: Single atoms bound in orbit by single photons. Science 287, 1447–1453 (2000).
Pinkse, P. W. H., Fischer, T., Maunz, T. P. & Rempe, G. Trapping an atom with single photons. Nature 404, 365–368 (2000).
Cabrillo, C., Cirac, J. I., G-Fernandez, P. & Zoller, P. Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference. Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
Bose, S., Knight, P. L., Plenio, M. B. & Vedral, V. Proposal for teleportation of an atomic state via cavity decay. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5158–5161 (1999).
Raymer, M. G., Walmsley, I. A., Mostowski, J. & Sobolewska, B. Quantum theory of spatial and temporal coherence properties of stimulated Raman scattering. Phys. Rev. A 32, 332–344 (1985).
Kuzmich, A., Mölmer, K. & Polzik, E. S. Spin squeezing in an ensemble of atoms illuminated with squeezed light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 481 (1998).
Kuzmich, A., Bigelow, N. P. & Mandel, L. Atomic quantum non-demolition measurements and squeezing. Europhys. Lett. A 42, 481–486 (1998).
Lukin, M. D., Yelin, S. F. & Fleischhauer, M. Entanglement of atomic ensembles by trapping correlated photon states. Phys. Rev. lett. 84, 4232–4235 (2000).
Duan, L. M., Cirac, J. I., Zoller, P. & Polzik, E. S. Quantum communication between atomic ensembles using coherent light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5643–5646 (2000).
Hald, J., Sorensen, J. L., Schori, C. & Polzik, E. S. Spin squeezed state: A macroscopic entangled ensemble created by light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319–1322 (1999).
Phillips, D. F. et al. Storage of light in atomic vapor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
Liu, C., Dutton, Z., Behroozi, C. H. & Hau, L. V. Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses. Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
Knill, E., Laflamme, R. & Milburn, G. J. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
Pan, J. W., Simon, C., Brukner, C. & Zeilinger, A. Feasible entanglement purification for quantum communication. Nature 410, 1067–1070 (2001).
Roch, J.-F. et al. Quantum nondemolition measurements using cold trapped atoms. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 634–637 (1997).
Lo, H. K. & Chau, H. F. Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances. Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
Shor, P. W. & Preskill, J. Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
Clauser, J. F., Horne, M. A., Shimony, A. & Holt, R. A. Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories. Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969).
Bouwmeester, D. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997).
Budker, D., Yashuk, V. & Zolotorev, M. Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow width. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5788–5791 (1998).
This work was supported by the Austrian Science Foundation, the Europe Union project EQUIP, the ESF, the European TMR network Quantum Information, and the NSF through a grant to the ITAMP and ITR program. L.-M.D. was also supported by the Chinese Science Foundation.
About this article
Cite this article
Duan, L., Lukin, M., Cirac, J. et al. Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics. Nature 414, 413–418 (2001) doi:10.1038/35106500
Error-detected N-photon cluster state generation based on the controlled-phase gate using a quantum dot in an optical microcavity
Frontiers of Physics (2020)
Optics Communications (2020)
Quantum Science and Technology (2019)
Entanglement conductance as a characterization of a delocalized-localized phase transition in free fermion models
Physical Review B (2019)
Journal of Physics Communications (2019)