The origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is controversial. We show here that viruses obtained from the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa have a quantitatively different phylogenetic tree structure from those sampled in other parts of the world. This indicates that the structure of HIV-1 phylogenies is the result of epidemiological processes acting within human populations alone, and is not due to multiple cross-species transmission initiated by oral polio vaccination.
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Rambaut, A., Robertson, D., Pybus, O. et al. Phylogeny and the origin of HIV-1. Nature 410, 1047–1048 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1038/35074179
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