Injected cytochrome c induces apoptosis

Article metrics

Abstract

Mitochondria, the cell's energy-producing organelles, are thought to play a central role in mediating apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Mitochondrial morphology remains intact during the process, the apoptosis-blocking protein Bcl-2 is localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane1, several critical steps in the process require ATP2, and mitochondrial ‘megachannels’ or ‘permeability transitions’ open during apoptosis. It has been suggested that mitochondrial constituents leak out through these permeability transition channels, and activate the apoptotic machinery in the cytosol3. Here we show that the injection into cells of a key mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c, activates apoptosis.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Effect of cytochrome c microinjection in NRK cells.
Figure 2: Morphology of microinjected NRK cells.

References

  1. 1

    Hockenbery, D., Nunez, G., Milliman, C., Schreiber, R. D. & Korsmeyer, S. J. Nature 348, 334–336 (1990).

  2. 2

    Tsujimoto, Y. Cell Death Differ. 4, 429–434 (1997).

  3. 3

    Kroemer, G. Cell Death Differ. 4, 443–456 (1997).

  4. 4

    Liu, X., Kim, C. N., Yang, J., Jemmerson, R. & Wang, W. Cell 86, 147–157 (1996).

  5. 5

    Yang, J.et al. Science 275, 1129–1132 (1997).

  6. 6

    Kluck, R. M., Bossy-Wetzel, E., Green, D. R. & Newmeyer, D. D. Science 275, 1132–1136 (1997).

  7. 7

    Mellgren, G., Vintermyr, O., Bøe, R. & Døskeland, S. Exp. Cell Res. 205, 293–301 (1993).

  8. 8

    Hampton, M. D., Zhivotovsky, B., Slater, A. F. G., Burgess, D. H. & Orrenius, S. Biochem. J. 329, 95–99 (1998).

  9. 9

    Hengartner, M. O. Nature 388, 714–715 (1997).

  10. 10

    Kharbanda, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6939-6942. (1997).

  11. 11

    Wang, H.-G., Rapp, U. R. & Reed, J. C. Cell 87, 629–638 (1996).

  12. 12

    Scaife, J. F. Canad. J. Biochem. 44, 433–448 (1966).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.