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Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana


The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced by an international collaboration, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Here we report the complete sequence of chromosome 5. This chromosome is 26 megabases long; it is the second largest Arabidopsis chromosome and represents 21% of the sequenced regions of the genome. The sequence of chromosomes 2 and 4 have been reported previously1,2 and that of chromosomes 1 and 3, together with an analysis of the complete genome sequence, are reported in this issue3,4,5. Analysis of the sequence of chromosome 5 yields further insights into centromere structure and the sequence determinants of heterochromatin condensation. The 5,874 genes encoded on chromosome 5 reveal several new functions in plants, and the patterns of gene organization provide insights into the mechanisms and extent of genome evolution in plants.

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Figure 1: FISH analysis of heterochromatin showing CEN5 features.
Figure 2: Sequence features of the heterochromatic knob region.


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This work was supported by the Kazusa DNA Research Institute Foundation, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the USDA NRI Plant Genome Program, and the European Commission. Additional support came from the BBSRC (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council), GSF-Forschungszentrum f. Umwelt u. Gesundheit, BMBF (Bundesministerium f. Bildung, Forschung und Technologie), Plant Research International, Wageningen, Westvaco Corporation and David L. Luke III.

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Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.B. (e-mail: The annotated set of chromosome 5 genes is available at, and

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Kazusa DNA Research Institute., The Cold Spring Harbor and Washington University Sequencing Consortium., The European Union Arabidopsis Genome Sequencing Consortium. et al. Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Nature 408, 823–826 (2000).

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