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A Toll for DNA vaccines

The mammalian protein that triggers an innate immune response to bacterial DNA has been identified. This discovery may help in understanding and improving DNA-based vaccines.

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Figure 1: Role of Toll-like receptors in the mammalian innate immune response to pathogens.


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Correspondence to Robert L. Modlin.

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Modlin, R. A Toll for DNA vaccines. Nature 408, 659–660 (2000).

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