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Superconductivity at 52 K in hole-doped C60

A Retraction to this article was published on 06 March 2003


Superconductivity in electron-doped C60 was first observed almost ten years ago. The metallic state and superconductivity result from the transfer of electrons from alkaline or alkaline-earth ions to the C60 molecule, which is known to be a strong electron acceptor. For this reason, it is very difficult to remove electrons from C60—yet one might expect to see superconductivity at higher temperatures in hole-doped than in electron-doped C60, because of the higher density of electronic states in the valence band than in the conduction band. We have used the technique of gate-induced doping in a field-effect transistor configuration to introduce significant densities of holes into C60. We observe superconductivity over an extended range of hole density, with a smoothly varying transition temperature Tc that peaks at 52 K. By comparison with the well established dependence of Tc on the lattice parameter in electron-doped C60, we anticipate that Tc values significantly in excess of 100 K should be achievable in a suitably expanded, hole-doped C60 lattice.

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Figure 1: Channel resistance of a C60 single-crystal field-effect transistor.
Figure 2: Transition temperature Tc as a function of hole density for two samples.
Figure 3: Critical magnetic field Hc2 as a function of temperature.
Figure 4: Transition temperature and density of states as a function of charge per C60 molecule.
Figure 5: Resistivity of electron- and hole-doped C60 as a function of temperature.
Figure 6: Difference of the resistivity ρ and the residual resistivity ρo as a function of temperature.
Figure 7: Transition temperature in electron- and hole-doped C60 as function of lattice parameter.


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We thank E. A. Chandross and C. M. Varma for discussions, and E. Bucher for the use of his equipment.

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Correspondence to B. Batlogg.

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Schön, J., Kloc, C. & Batlogg, B. Superconductivity at 52 K in hole-doped C60. Nature 408, 549–552 (2000).

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