Science's new social contract with society

Article metrics

Under the prevailing contract between science and society, science has been expected to produce ‘reliable’ knowledge, provided merely that it communicates its discoveries to society. A new contract must now ensure that scientific knowledge is ‘socially robust’, and that its production is seen by society to be both transparent and participative.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    van Duinen, R. J. European research councils and the Triple Helix. Sci. Public Policy 25, 381–386 ( 1998).

  2. 2

    Daston, L. & Galison, P. The image of objectivity. Representations 40, 81–128 (1992).

  3. 3

    Ziman, J. Reliable Knowledge Canto Edn (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1991).

  4. 4

    Nowotny, H., Scott, P. & Gibbons, M. Re-thinking Science: Knowledge Production in an Age of Uncertainty (in the press).

  5. 5

    Gieryn, T. F. in Handbook of Science and Technology Studies (eds Jasanoff, S. et al.) 393–443 (Sage Publishers, London, 1995).

  6. 6

    Hughes, T. P. Rescuing Prometheus 301–303 (Pantheon Books, New York, 1998).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research described in this essay is taken from a report entitled ‘ Re-thinking science: knowledge production in a Mode 2 Society’, prepared by H. Nowotny, P. Scott and M. Gibbons for, and funded by, the Tercentenary Fund of the Royal Swedish Bank and the Swedish Council for Higher Education.

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gibbons, M. Science's new social contract with society. Nature 402, C81–C84 (1999) doi:10.1038/35011576

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.