Evidence for stratospheric nitric acid condensation from balloon and rocket measurements in the Arctic

Article metrics

Abstract

Strong evidence for nitric acid condensation at altitudes of about 18–23 km is provided by balloon-and rocket-borne measurements made near Kiruna, northern Sweden, in January 1989. Nitric acid con-densation is believed to be a necessary step in the chemical pre-conditioning required for chlorine-catalysed ozone destruction.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Crutzen, P. & Arnold, F. Nature 324, 651–655 (1986).

  2. 2

    Toon, O. B., Hamill, P., Turco, R. P. & Pinto, J. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).

  3. 3

    Crutzen, P. J., Bruhl, C., Schmailzl, U. & Arnold, F. in Aerosols and Climate (eds McCormick, M. P. & Hobbs, P. V.) (Deepak, Hampton, in the press).

  4. 4

    McElroy, M. B., Salawitch, R. J. & Wofsy, S. C. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1296–1299 (1986).

  5. 5

    Hamill, P., Toon, O. B. & Turco, R. P. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1288–1291 (1986).

  6. 6

    Hamill, P., Turco, R. P. & Toon, O. B. J. atmos. Chem. 7, 287–315 (1988).

  7. 7

    Wofsy, S. C., Molina, M. J., Salawitch, R. J., Fox, L. E. & McElroy, M. B. J. geophys. Res. 93, 2442–2450 (1988).

  8. 8

    Turco, R. P., Toon, O. B. & Hamill, P. J. geophys. Res. (in the press).

  9. 9

    Molina, L. T. & Molina, M. J. J. phys. Chem. 91, 433–436 (1987).

  10. 10

    Molina, M. J., Tso, T.-L., Molina, L. T. & Wang, F. C.-Y. Science 238, 1253–1257 (1987).

  11. 11

    Rossi, M. J., Malhotra, R. & Golden, D. M. Geophys. Res. Lett 14, 127–130 (1987).

  12. 12

    Hanson, D. & Mauersberger, K. J. phys. Chem. 92, 6167–6170 (1988).

  13. 13

    Hanson, D. & Mauersberger, K. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).

  14. 14

    Leu, M.-T. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 17–20 (1988).

  15. 15

    Leu, M.-T. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 851–854 (1988).

  16. 16

    Leu, M.-T. Polar Ozone Workshop, Snowmass, Colorado, 1988.

  17. 17

    Tolbert, M. A., Rossi, M. J., Malhotra, R. & Golden, D. M. Science 238, 1258–1260 (1987).

  18. 18

    Wolff, E. W. & Mulvaney, R. Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 487–490 (1989).

  19. 19

    Tolbert, M. A., Rossi, M. J. & Golden, D. M. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 847–850 (1988).

  20. 20

    Arnold, F. & Knop, G. Nature 318, 746–749 (1989).

  21. 21

    Fahey, D. W. et al. J. geophys. Res. 94, 11299–11315 (1989).

  22. 22

    Ferry, G., McCormick, M. P., Pueschel, R. F. & Livingston, J. M. J. geophys. Res. (in the press).

  23. 23

    Gandrud, B. W. et al. J. geophys. Res. 94, 11286–11297 (1989).

  24. 24

    Pueschel, R. F. et al. J. geophys. Res. 94, 11271–11284 (1989).

  25. 25

    Kinne, S., Toon, O. B., Toon, G., Farmer, C. B. & Browell, E. V. J. geophys. Res. (in the press).

  26. 26

    Arnold, F. & Hauck, G. Nature 315, 307–309 (1985).

  27. 27

    Knop, G. & Arnold, F. Planet. Space Sci. 33, 983–986 (1985).

  28. 28

    Arnold, F., Knop, G. & Ziereis, H. Nature 321, 505–507 (1986).

  29. 29

    Knop, G. & Arnold, F. Planet. Space Sci. 35, 259–266 (1987).

  30. 30

    Arnold, F. & Knop, G. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 81, 33–44 (1987).

  31. 31

    Möhler, O. & Arnold, F. J. atmos. Chem. (submitted).

  32. 32

    Hofmann, D. J. et al. Nature 340, 117–121 (1989).

  33. 33

    Salawitch, R. J., Cobb, G. P., Wofsy, S. C. & McElroy, M. B. Nature 339, 525–527 (1989).

  34. 34

    Russell, J. M. Adv. Space Res. 4, 107–116 (1984).

  35. 35

    Russell, J. M. et al. J. geophys. Res. 89, 5115–5124 (1984).

  36. 36

    Kiehl, J. T., Boville, B. A. & Briegleb, B. P. Nature 332, 501–504 (1988).

  37. 37

    Schlager, H. & Arnold, F. Geophys. Res. Lett. (in the press).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.