Table 1 β-Galactosidase gene transfer to ligaments

From: Gene intervention in ligament and tendon: current status, challenges, future directions

Author Vector Method Ligament Species Injection
Hildebrand et al24 Adenovirus In vivo MCL/ACL Rabbit Direct
  Retrovirus Ex vivo MCL/ACL   
Menetrey et al25 Adenovirus In vivo ACL Rabbit Direct
   Ex vivo    
Day et al27 Adenovirus Ex vivo ACL Rabbit Intra-articular
  1. In vivo: vector introduced directly into ligament.
  2. Ex vivo: gene introduced via allograft cells into ligament.