Can Planck-mass relics of evaporating black holes close the Universe?

Abstract

The fate of an evaporating black hole when it reaches the Planck mass is a matter for conjecture. Here, we propose that the cosmological dark matter consists of the Planck-mass remnants of evaporating primordial black holes. Such remnants would be expected to have close to the critical density if the black holes evaporating at the present epoch have the maximum density consistent with cosmic-ray constraints. The remnants are also candidates for the missing mass in the galactic halo. Primordial black holes of the required density may form naturally at the end of an inflationary epoch. Planck-mass relics would behave dynamically just like 'cold dark matter' and would therefore share the attractions of other 'cold' candidates. In addition, because the baryonic matter in black holes cannot participate in nucleosynthesis the limits on the baryonic content of the Universe set by primordial nucleosynthesis are circumvented.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Hawking, S. W. Nature 248, 30–31 (1974).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Birrell, N.D. & Davies, P. C. W. Quantum Fields in Curved Space (Cambridge University Press, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Bunch, S. T. J. Phys. A. 14, L139–L143 (1981).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    York, J. W. Jr in Quantum Theory of Gravity (ed. Christensen, S.) 135–147 (Hilger, London, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Markov, M. A. in Proc. 2nd Seminar in Quantum Gravity (eds Markov, M. A. & West, P. C.) 1–18 (Plenum, New York, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    DeWitt, B. S. Phys. Rep. 19C, 297–357 (1975).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Wald, R. in Quantum Theory of Gravity (ed. Christensen, S.) 160–168 (Hilger, London, 1984).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Hawking, S. W. Communs. math. Phys. 55, 133–148 (1977).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Hawking, S. W. Phys. Rev. D14, 2460–2473 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Penrose, R. in General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (eds Hawking, S. W. & Israel, W.) 581–638 (Cambridge University Press, 1979).

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Carr, B. J. & Hawking, S. W. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 168, 399–415 (1974).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Carr, B. J. Astrophys. J. 201, 1–19 (1975).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Guth, A. Phys. Rev. D23, 347–356 (1981).

    ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Linde, A. D. Phys. Lett. B108, 389–393 (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Albrecht, A. & Steinhardt, P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1220–1223 (1982).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Fabbri, R., Lucchin, F. & Matarrese, S. Astrophys. J. 315, 1–11 (1987).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Kaiser, N. & Silk, J. Nature 324, 529–537 1086).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Silk, J. & Turner, M. S. Phys. Rev. D35, 419–428 (1987).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Starobinskii, A. A. Soviet Phys. JETP Lett. 42, 152–155 (1985).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Davis, M., Efstathiou, G., Fenck, C. S. & White, S. D. M. Astrophys. J. 292, 371–394 (1985).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

MacGibbon, J. Can Planck-mass relics of evaporating black holes close the Universe?. Nature 329, 308–309 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1038/329308a0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing