Review Article | Published:

The mean mass density of the Universe

Nature volume 321, pages 2732 (01 May 1986) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Observations of galaxy clustering indicate that the mean mass density is only about one-third of that predicted by the popular Einstein–de Sitter cosmological model. Theory and observation can be reconciled if there has been large-scale segregation of galaxies from mass, but the gravitational instability of the expanding universe would tend to destroy such a segregation. Thus either conventional ideas about galaxy formation are wrong, or the Einstein–de Sitter model is not a useful approximation.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 422, 1–14 (1984).

  2. 2.

    & Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 18, 213–214 (1932).

  3. 3.

    Sur la Structure Cosmologique de l'Espace, 108 (Hermann, Paris, 1933).

  4. 4.

    Realm of the Nebulae, 188–189 (Yale University Press, 1936).

  5. 5.

    Gravitation and the Universe, 62 (American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1970).

  6. 6.

    & in General Relativity: an Einstein Centenary Survey (eds Hawking, S. W. & Israel, W.) 504–517 (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1979).

  7. 7.

    , & Gravitation, 549 (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973).

  8. 8.

    Astrophys. J. 189, L51–L53 (1974).

  9. 9.

    & Astrophys. J. 285, L45–L48 (1984).

  10. 10.

    , , & Astrophys. J. 194, 543–554 (1974).

  11. 11.

    Nature 253, 251–252 (1975).

  12. 12.

    Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 442, 15–32 (1984).

  13. 13.

    and Phys. Rev. D31, 3059–3063 (1985).

  14. 14.

    Physical Cosmology. 116 (Princeton University Press, 1971).

  15. 15.

    , & Astrophys. J. 193, L1–L4 (1974).

  16. 16.

    , & Nature 250, 309–310 (1974).

  17. 17.

    Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 375, 159 (1981).

  18. 18.

    Astrophy. J. 284, L9–L12 (1984).

  19. 19.

    in Inner Space/Outer Space (eds Kolb, E. W. et al.) (University of Chicago Press, in the press).

  20. 20.

    in Inner Space/Outer Space (eds Kolb, E. W. et al.) (University of Chicago Press, in the press).

  21. 21.

    in Clusters and Groups of Galaxies (eds Mardirossian. F. et al.) 485–497 (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984).

  22. 22.

    , , & Astrophys. J. 292, 371–394 (1985).

  23. 23.

    in Dark Matter in the Universe (eds Kormedny, J. & Knapp, G.) (Reidel, Dordrecht, in the press).

  24. 24.

    Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 213, 75P–81P (1985).

  25. 25.

    & Astrophys. J. 292, 319–329 (1985).

  26. 26.

    & Astrophys. J. 303, 39–55 (1986).

  27. 27.

    & Astrophys. J. 305 (in the press).

  28. 28.

    & Astrophys. J. 297, 365–370 (1985).

  29. 29.

    Astrophys. J. 193, 525–527 (1974).

  30. 30.

    Astrophys. J. 205, 318–328 (1976).

  31. 31.

    & A. Rev. Astr. Astrophys. 21, 109–130 (1983).

  32. 32.

    & Astrophys. J. 294, 81–95 (1985).

  33. 33.

    & Astrophys. J. 263, 485–500 (1982).

  34. 34.

    , , & Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 217, 7p–11p (1985).

  35. 35.

    , , & Astr. J. 88, 1285–1300 (1983).

  36. 36.

    & Astrophys. J. 184, 329–341 (1973).

  37. 37.

    Astr. J. 84, 730–734 (1979).

  38. 38.

    & Astrophys. J. 267, 465–482 (1983).

  39. 39.

    et al. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 205, 605–624 (1983).

  40. 40.

    Science 224, 1385–1391 (1984).

  41. 41.

    Science 220, 1339–1344 (1983).

  42. 42.

    & Astrophys. J. 267, 535–546 (1983).

  43. 43.

    & Astrophys. J. 217, 385–405 (1977).

  44. 44.

    et al.Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 213, 953–969 (1982).

  45. 45.

    , Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 3, 211–288 (1958).

  46. 46.

    & Univ. Calif. Publs Lick Obs. 22, 1–60 (1967).

  47. 47.

    & Astrophys. J. 214, L1–L4 (1977).

  48. 48.

    & Astr. J. 87, 945–971 (1982).

  49. 49.

    & Astr. J. 88, 697–708 (1983).

  50. 50.

    , & Astrophys. J. 282, 19–28 (1984).

  51. 51.

    & Astr. Astrophys. 113, 85–93 (1982).

  52. 52.

    Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 195, 1037–1056 (1981).

  53. 53.

    Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 297–299 (Princeton University Press, 1980).

  54. 54.

    , & Astrophys. J. 302, L1–L5 (1986).

  55. 55.

    Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 202, 595–604 (1983).

  56. 56.

    Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934).

  57. 57.

    & Bull. Am. astr. Soc. 61, 488–489 (1984).

  58. 58.

    & Astrophys. J. (in the press).

  59. 59.

    & Astrophys. J. 243, L127–L131 (1981).

  60. 60.

    Publs astr. Soc. Japan 33, 211–222 (1981).

  61. 61.

    Nucl. Phys. B252, 25–36 (1985).

  62. 62.

    & Nature 312, 598–599 (1984).

  63. 63.

    , , , & Astrophys. J. 281, 493–511 (1984).

  64. 64.

    , & Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2090–2093 (1984).

  65. 65.

    Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 213, 29P–34P (1985).

  66. 66.

    & Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2269–2272 (1985).

  67. 67.

    Astrophys. J. 270, 365–389 (1983).

  68. 68.

    Astrophys. J. 284, 439–444 (1984).

  69. 69.

    , , & Astrophys. J. 299, L1–L5 (1985).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

    • P. J. E. Peebles

Authors

  1. Search for P. J. E. Peebles in:

About this article

Publication history

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/321027a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.