Radial distribution studies of non-framework aluminium species formed during dehydroxylation of zeolite HY

Abstract

The use of stabilized zeolite Y as a cracking catalyst for converting petroleum into gasoline, fuel oil and petrochemical feeds is widespread1. During the stabilization process, when the ammonium-exchanged form of zeolite Y is heated to high temperatures, aluminium is extracted from the zeolite framework1–3. The nature of this non-framework aluminium has been of considerable interest because of its possible influence on the zeolite acidity and thermal stability. Indirect information on the nature of the non-framework Al (NFA) has been obtained from infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. To obtain further knowledge of the NFA species, we have now performed radial electron distribution studies of H–Y and H–Y dehydroxylated in vacuum and steam. These studies suggest that the non-framework Al species probably contain edge-shared octahedral Alm(O,OH)n chains similar to those found in NaAlSi2O6 (jadeite), CaAl2(OH)4SiO4 (chantalite) and Al2(OH)2TeO3SO4.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    McDaniel, C. V. & Maher, P. K. Am. chem. Soc. Monogr. 171, 285–331 (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Kerr, G. T. Am. chem. Soc. adv. Chem. Ser. 121, 219–229 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    von Ballmoos, R. The 19O Exchange Method in Zeolite Chemistry (Salle-Sauerlander,Frankfurt, 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Flanigan, E. M. Amer. chem. Soc. Monogr. 171, 80–117 (1976).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Scherzer, J. & Bass, J. L. J. Catal. 28, 101–115 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Pichat, P., Beaumont, R. & Barthomeuf, D. JCS Faraday Trans. I 70, 1402–1407 (1974).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Eberly, P. E., Laurent, S. M. & Robson, H. F. US Patent 3,506,400 (1970).

  8. 8

    Lohse, U., Alsdorf, E. & Stach, H. Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem. 447, 64–74 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Weeks, T. J., Angell, C. L. & Bolton, A. P. J. Crystalysis 38, 461–468 (1975).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Kuhl, G. Proc. 3rd int. Conf. Molecular Sieves, Zurich, 277–229 (Leuven University Press, 1973).

  11. 11

    Kuhl, G. J. phys. Chem. Solids 38, 1259–1263 (1977).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Patton, E. M., Flanigan, E. M., Dowell, L. G. & Passoja, D. E. Am. chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 40, 64–75 (1977).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Raatz, F., Freund, E. & Marcilly, C. JCS Faraday Trans. I 79, 2299–2309 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Maher, P. K., Hunter, F. D. & Scherzer, J. Am. chem. Soc. edv. Chem. Ser. 101, 266–278 (1971).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Klinowski, J., Thomas, J. M., Fyfe, C. A. & Gobbi, G. C. Nature 296, 533–536 (1982).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Engelhardt, G. Zeolites 2, 59–62 (1982).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Engelhardt, G., Lohse, U., Patzelova, V., Magi, M. & Lippmaa, E. Zeolites 3, 233–238; 239–245 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Bosacek, V., Freude, D., Frohlich, T., Pfeifer, H. & Schmiedel, H. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 85, 502–507 (1982).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Freude, D., Frohlich, T., Pfeifer, H. & Scheler, G. Zeolites 3, 171–177 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Freude, D., Frohlich, T., Hunger, M., Pfeifer, H. & Scheler, G. Chem. Phys. Lett. 98, 263–266 (1983).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Ward, J. W. J. Catal. 18, 348–351 (1970).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Jacobs, P. & Uytterhoeven, J. B. J. Catal. 22, 193–203 (1971).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Jacobs, P. A. & Uytterhoeven, J. B. JCS Faraday Trans. I 69, 373–386 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Peri, J. B. Proc. 5th intern. Congr. Catalysis (ed. Hightower, J.) 329–341 (Elsevier, New York, 1973).

  25. 25

    Kerr, G. T. J. Catal. 15, 200–204 (1969).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Breck, D. W. & Skeels, G. W. Proc. 6th int. Congr. Catalysis Vol. 2 (eds Bond, G. C., Wells, P. B. and Tompkins, F. C.) 645 (Chemical Society, London, 1976).

  27. 27

    Kuhl, G. Am. chem. Soc. Symp. Set. 40, 96–107 (1977).

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Breck, D. W. & Skeels, G. W. Proc. 5th int. Conf. Zeolites (ed. Rees, L. V. C., 335) (Heyden, London, 1980).

  29. 29

    Beran, S., Jiru, P. & Wichterlova, B. J. phys. Chem. 85, 1951–1958 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Mauge, F. et al. in Catalysis by Acids and Bases (ed. Imelik, B.) 91–99 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Gallezot, P. & Bergeret, G. J. Catal. 72, 294–302 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Gallezot, P., Bienenstock, A. & Boudart, M. Nouv. J. Chim. 2, 263–266 (1978).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    D'Antonio, P. & Konnert, J. H. J. appl. Crystallogr. 13, 459–461 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Konnert, J. H. & Karle, J. Acta crystallogr. A29, 702–709 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Konnert, J. H., D'Antonio, P. & Karle, J. J. Non-cryst. Solids 53, 135–141 (1982).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Cameron, M., Sueno, S., Prewitt, C. T. & Papike, J. J. Am. Miner 58, 594–618 (1973).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Liebich, B. W., Sarp, H. & Parthe, E. Z. Kristallogr. 150, 53–63 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Johansson, G. B. & Lindqvist, O. Acta cryst. B32, 407–411 (1976).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Gallezot, P. & Imelik, B. J. chim. Phys. 68, 816–821 (1971).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Shannon, R. D. Acta crystallogr. A32, 751–767 (1976).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shannon, R., Bergeret, G. & Gallezot, P. Radial distribution studies of non-framework aluminium species formed during dehydroxylation of zeolite HY. Nature 315, 736–739 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1038/315736a0

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.