Recent attempts1,2 to consolidate assessments of the effect of human activities on stratospheric ozone (O3) using one-dimensional models for 30° N have suggested that perturbations of total O3 will remain small for at least the next decade. Results from such models are often accepted by default as global estimates3. The inadequacy of this approach is here made evident by observations that the spring values of total O3 in Antarctica have now fallen considerably. The circulation in the lower stratosphere is apparently unchanged, and possible chemical causes must be considered. We suggest that the very low temperatures which prevail from midwinter until several weeks after the spring equinox make the Antarctic stratosphere uniquely sensitive to growth of inorganic chlorine, ClX, primarily by the effect of this growth on the NO2/NO ratio. This, with the height distribution of UV irradiation peculiar to the polar stratosphere, could account for the O3 losses observed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Scientific Reports Open Access 06 January 2023
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology Open Access 11 November 2022
Communications Earth & Environment Open Access 23 June 2022
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Cicerone, R. J., Walters, S. & Liu, S. C. J. geophys. Res. 88, 3647–3661 (1983).
Prather, M. J., McElroy, M. B. & Wofsy, S. C. Nature 312, 227–231 (1984).
The Stratosphere 1981, Theory and Measurements (WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 11, 1981).
Farman, J. C. & Hamilton, R. A. Br. Antarct. Surv. Sci. Rep. No. 90 (1975).
Farman, J. C. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B279, 261–271 (1977).
Farman, J. C., Murgatroyd, R. J., Silnickas, A. M. & Thrush, B. A. Q. Jl R. met. Soc. (submitted).
McKenzie, R. L. & Johnston, P. V. Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 73–75 (1984).
Johnston, H. S. & Podolske, J. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 16, 491–519 (1978).
Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modelling, Evaluation No. 6 (JPL Publ. 83–62, 1983).
Dunkerton, T. J. atmos. Sci. 35, 2325–2333 (1978).
Dopplick, T. G. J. atmos. Sci. 29, 1278–1294 (1972).
About this article
Cite this article
Farman, J., Gardiner, B. & Shanklin, J. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature 315, 207–210 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1038/315207a0
This article is cited by
Scientific Reports (2023)
Communications Earth & Environment (2022)
Stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric ozone increases drive Southern Ocean interior warming
Nature Climate Change (2022)
Scientific Reports (2022)
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2022)