It has been suggested that the failure of parthenogenetic mouse embryos to develop to term is primarily due to their aberrant cytoplasm and homozygosity leading to the expression of recessive lethal genes1. The reported birth of homozygous gynogenetic (male pronucleus removed from egg after fertilization) mice and of animals following transplantation of nuclei from parthenogenetic embryos to enucleated fertilized eggs2,3, is indicative of abnormal cytoplasm and not an abnormal genotype of the activated eggs. However, we4 and others5,6 have been unable to obtain such homozygous mice. We investigated this problem further by using reconstituted heterozygous eggs, with haploid parthenogenetic eggs as recipients for a male or female pronucleus. We report here that the eggs which receive a male pronucleus develop to term but those with two female pronuclei develop only poorly after implantation. Therefore, the cytoplasm of activated eggs is fully competent to support development to term but not if the genome is entirely of maternal origin. We propose that specific imprinting of the genome occurs during gametogenesis so that the presence of both a male and a female pronucleus is essential in an egg for full-term development. The paternal imprinting of the genome appears necessary for the normal development of the extraembryonic membranes and the trophoblast.
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Surani, M., Barton, S. & Norris, M. Development of reconstituted mouse eggs suggests imprinting of the genome during gametogenesis. Nature 308, 548–550 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1038/308548a0
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