Brain grafts reverse hypogonadism of gonadotropin releasing hormone deficiency

Article metrics


Hypogonadism in the mutant hpg mouse is characterized by a deficiency of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)1. Affected male mice exhibit immature reproductive organs, small abdominal testes and low pituitary and plasma gonadotropin concentrations. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of fetal brain transplants to establish functional connections with host tissues2. We therefore sought to use this approach to correct the hpg deficit. Fetal preoptic area (POA) (a site of GnRH production) from unaffected animals of the hpg strain was transplanted into the anterior third ventricle of adult hpg mice. We report that in such implanted animals, killed 2 months post-implantation, the POA grafts contained GnRH neurones, from which GnRH-positive fibres could be traced to capillaries of the median eminence. Hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary and plasma gonadotropin concentrations were increased compared with levels in untreated (hpg) animals. The testes were enlarged and had descended into the scrotum. Evidence of full spermatogenesis and interstitial cell development was present in testicular sections. No such effects were seen with transplants of cortical tissue.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Cattanach, B. M., Iddon, C. A., Charlton, H. M., Chiappa, S. A. & Fink, G. Nature 269, 338–340 (1977).

  2. 2

    Bjorklund, A., Stenevi, U. & Svendgaard, N.-A. Nature 262, 787–790 (1976).

  3. 3

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M. & Silverman, A. J. J. comp. Neurol. 191, 213–225 (1980).

  4. 4

    Gross, D. S. & Baker, B. L. Am. J. Anat. 148, 195–216 (1977).

  5. 5

    Iddon, C. A., Charlton, H. M. & Fink, G. J. Endocr. 85, 105–110 (1980).

  6. 6

    Bamber, S., Iddon, C. A., Charlton, H. M. & Ward, B. J. J. Reprod. Fert. 58, 249–252 (1980).

  7. 7

    Moss, R. L., Riskand, P. & Dudley, C. in Central Nervous System Effects of Hypothalamic Hormones and Other Peptides (eds Collu, R., Barbeau, A., Ducharme, J. R. & Rochefort, J.-G.), 345 (Raven, New York, 1979).

  8. 8

    Lund, R. D. & Hauschka, S. D. Science 193, 582–584 (1976).

  9. 9

    Hallas, B. H., Oblinger, M. M. & Das, G. D. Brain Res. 196, 242–246 (1980).

  10. 10

    Kromer, L. F., Bjorklund, A. & Stenevi, U. Brain Res. 210, 153–171 (1981).

  11. 11

    Azmitia, E. C., Perlow, M. J., Brennan, M. J. & Lauder, J. M. Brain Res. Bull. 7, 703–710 (1981).

  12. 12

    Stenevi, U. et al. Cell Tissue Res. 205, 217–228 (1980).

  13. 13

    Perlow, M. J. et al. Science 204, 643–647 (1979).

  14. 14

    Björklund, A., Donnett, S. B., Stenevi, U., Lewis, M. F. & Iversen, S. D. Brain Res. 199, 307–333 (1980).

  15. 15

    Gash, D. & Scott, D. E. Cell Tissue Res. 211, 191–206 (1980).

  16. 16

    Gash, D., Sladek, J. R. Jr & Sladek, C. Science 210, 1367–1369 (1981).

  17. 17

    Kirk, R. F. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences, 69–98; 493–497 (Wadsworth, California, 1968).

  18. 18

    Araki, S., Ferin, M., Zimmerman, E. A. & vande Wiele, R. I. Endocrinology 96, 644–650 (1975).

  19. 19

    Hsu, S.-M., Raine, L. & Fanger, H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29, 577–580 (1981).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Krieger, D., Perlow, M., Gibson, M. et al. Brain grafts reverse hypogonadism of gonadotropin releasing hormone deficiency. Nature 298, 468–471 (1982) doi:10.1038/298468a0

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.