Neuropeptides are frequently found in neurones that also contain another putative transmitter substance such as a biogenic amine or acetylcholine1–5. Such co-existence has led to the suggestion that the roles of neuropeptides in the nervous system may be diverse and may in some systems include a part in conventional neurotransmission as well as an ancillary, or modulatory, role. Recently, several studies have noted the co-occurrence of two peptides within individual neurones of localized regions of the mammalian nervous system6–9. Here, we present the first evidence, based on an indirect immunofluorescence technique allowing the simultaneous visualization of separate tissue antigens, that substance P (SP) and Leu-enkephalin (L-Enk) co-occur within individual neurones of widespread regions of the avian central nervous system.
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Erichsen, J., Reiner, A. & Karten, H. Co-occurrence of substance P-like and Leu-enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in neurones and fibres of avian nervous system. Nature 295, 407–410 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1038/295407a0
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