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# Superoxide involvement in the bactericidal effects of negative air ions on Staphylococcus albus

## Abstract

The physical nature of small air ions is well established and it is recognised that they can produce a variety of biological effects1. However, in only a few instances have any underlying biochemical changes been detected2–4. Theoretically, one can consider the hydrated Superoxide radical anion (O2) (H2O)n with n4–8 as a likely candidate for a biologically active species of negative air ion5. The chemical and biological reactivity of Superoxide is high6 and includes a leading role in bacterial killing caused by radiation7,8, in which Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that catalyses the reaction: O2+O22H→H2O2+O2 protected markedly. Other studies have also demonstrated the bactericidal effect of O2 (refs 9–11). Inasmuch as the bactericidal action of small negative air ions has been repeatedly confirmed, we decided to test for the involvement of O2 in this phenomenon by evaluating the protective effect of SOD. Our results show strong O2 involvement in negative air ion bacterial kill.

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from$8.99 All prices are NET prices. ## References 1. 1 Kreuger, A. P. & Reed . Science 193, 1209–1213 (1976). 2. 2 Kotaka, S., Krueger, A. P. & Andriese, P. C. Int. J. Biometeor. 12, 85–92 (1968). 3. 3 Krueger, A. P. et al. Int. J. Biometeor. 10, 29–38 (1966). 4. 4 Krueger, A. P., Andriese, P. C. & Kotaka, S. Int. J. Biometeor. 12, 225–239 (1968). 5. 5 Announcement of the Joint Committee on Atmospheric Electricity of the Union Geodesique et Geophysique Internationale, 1967: Discussion on Mobility of Atmospheric Ions. Symposium at Lucerne, Switzerland. 2 October 1967. 6. 6 Fridovich, I. in Free Radicals in Biology Vol. 1 (ed. Pryor, W. A.) 239–277 (1976). 7. 7 Misra, H. P. & Fridovich, I. Archs Biochem. Biophys. 176, 577–581 (1976). 8. 8 Oberley, L. W., Lindgren, A. L., Baker, S. A. & Stevens, R. H. Radiat. Res. 68, 320–328 (1976). 9. 9 Gregory, E. M., Yost, F. J. Jr & Fridovich, I. J. Bact. 115, 987–991 (1973). 10. 10 Babior, B. M., Carnutte, J. T. & Kipnes, R. S. J. Lab. clin. Med. 85, 235–244 (1975). 11. 11 Rosen, H. & Klebanoff, S. J. J. exp. Med. 149, 27–39 (1979). 12. 12 Krueger, A. P., Reed, E. J., Brook, K. B. & Day, M. B. Int. J. Biometeor. 19, 65–71 (1975). 13. 13 McCord, J. M. & Fridovich, I. J. biol. Chem. 244, 6049–6055 (1969). 14. 14 Kellogg, E. W. III & Fridovich, I. J. biol. Chem. 250, 8812–8817 (1975); 252, 6721–6728 (1977). 15. 15 Niehaus, W. G. Jr Bio-org. Chem. 7, 77–84 (1978). Download references ## Author information ### Affiliations Authors ## Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions ## About this article ### Cite this article Kellogg, E., Yost, M., Barthakur, N. et al. Superoxide involvement in the bactericidal effects of negative air ions on Staphylococcus albus. Nature 281, 400–401 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1038/281400a0 Download citation • Received: • Accepted: • Published: • Issue Date: ## Further reading • ### Negative Air Ions and Their Effects on Human Health and Air Quality Improvement • Shu-Ye Jiang • , Ali Ma • & Srinivasan Ramachandran International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2018) • ### Visible-light activate Ag/WO 3 films based on wood with enhanced negative oxygen ions production properties • Likun Gao • , Wentao Gan • , Guoliang Cao • , Xianxu Zhan • , Tiangang Qiang • & Jian Li Applied Surface Science (2017) • ### Effects of H3O+, OH−,$\text{O}_{2}^{-}$,$\text{NO}_{\text{x}}^{-}\$ and NO x for Escherichia coli inactivation in atmospheric pressure DC corona discharges

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