Review Article | Published:

Present status of γ-ray astronomy

Naturevolume 277pages1721 (1979) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Diffuse extragalactic γ-ray flux may be due to individual objects, and two possible sources are 3C273 and NGC4151. The Milky Way is an intense line source exhibiting a large contrast in emissivity between the directions towards and away from the galactic centre, respectively, γ-ray point sources and cosmic rays interacting with interstellar material are both responsible for this emission—the latter decreasing away from the centre. Twenty-one point sources have been discovered to date, including f our pulsars which all have two maxima with 0.4 phase separation. If the number and position of γ-ray point sources are proportional to the stellar birth rate, the bulk of the galactic emission can then be explained by 5,000 sources emitting the 1042 photons > 100 MeV s−1 produced in the galaxy.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Proc 12th ESLAB Symp. (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  2. 2

    Paul, J. A. et al. Astr. Astrophys. 63, L31 (1978).

  3. 3

    Swanenburg, B. N. et al. Nature 275, 298 (1978).

  4. 4

    Schönfelder, V. Nature 274, 344 (1978).

  5. 5

    Silk, J. Space Sci. Rev. 11, 671 (1970).

  6. 6

    Stecker, F. W. Origin of Cosmic Rays (eds Osborne, J. L. & Wolfendale, A. W.) 267 (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974).

  7. 7

    Schönfelder, V., Graser, U. & Daugherty, J. Astrophys. J. 217, 306 (1977).

  8. 8

    Fichtel, C. E. et al. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 191 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  9. 9

    Pinkau, K. Proc. 15th int. Cosmic Ray Conf. Plovdiv (1977).

  10. 10

    Schönfelder, V. Fortschr. Phys. 23, 1 (1975).

  11. 11

    Rieke, G. H. & Weekes, T. C. Astrophys. J. 155, 429 (1969).

  12. 12

    Baity, W. A., Jones, T. W., Wheaton, Wm. A. & Peterson, L. E. Astrophys. J. Lett. 199, L5 (1975).

  13. 13

    Bennett, K. et al. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 83 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  14. 14

    Fichtel, C. E., Kniffen, D. A. & Thompson, D. J. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 95 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  15. 15

    Mezger, P. G. Astr. Astrophys. (in the press).

  16. 16

    Georgelin, Y. M. & Georgelin, Y. P. Astr. Astrophys. 49, 57 (1976).

  17. 17

    Hermsen, W. et al. Nature 269, 494 (1977).

  18. 18

    Hermsen, W. (on behalf of the Cos B collaboration) 6th Eur. Cosmic Ray Symp., Kiel (1978).

  19. 19

    Clark, G. W., Garmire, G. P. & Kraushaar, W. L. IAU Symp. No. 37, 269 (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1970).

  20. 20

    Thompson, D. J., Fichtel, C. E., Kniffen, D. A., Lamb, R. C. & Ögelman, H. B. Astrophys. Lett. 17, 173 (1976).

  21. 21

    Thompson, D. J., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Kniffen, D. A. & Lamb, R. C. Astrophys. J. 213, 252 (1977).

  22. 22

    Kanbach, G. et al. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 21 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  23. 23

    Buccheri, R., D'Amico, N., Massaro, E. & Scarsi, L. Nature 274, 572 (1978).

  24. 24

    D'Amico, N. (on behalf of the Cos B collaboration) 6th Eur. Cosmic Ray Symp., Kiel (1978).

  25. 25

    Harding, A. K., Tademaru, E. & Exposito, L. W. Astrophys. J. 225, 226 (1978).

  26. 26

    Coe, M. J., Quenby, J. J. & Engel, A. R. Nature 274, 343 (1978).

  27. 27

    Share, G. H., Preprint, E. O., Hulburt Center, NRL (1978).

  28. 28

    Lamb, R. C. Nature (submitted).

  29. 29

    Strong, A. W. Nature 269, 394 (1977).

  30. 30

    Lebrun, F. & Paul, J. A. Astr. Astrophys. 65, 187 (1978).

  31. 31

    Kraushaar, W. L. et al. Astrophys. J. 177, 341 (1972).

  32. 32

    Stecker, F. W. The Structure and Content of the Galaxy, and Galactic Gamma Rays, 315 (NASA CP-002, 1976).

  33. 33

    Stecker, F. W. Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 188 (1975).

  34. 34

    Ögelman, H. Nature 221, 753 (1969).

  35. 35

    Protheroe, R. J., Strong, A. W., Wolfendale, A. W., Bennett, K. & Wills, R. D. preprint (1978).

  36. 36

    Kniffen, D. A., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Lamb, R. C. & Thompson, D. J. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 45 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

  37. 37

    Higdon, J. C. & Lingenfelter, R. E. Astrophys. J. 208, L107 (1976).

  38. 38

    Seiradakis, J. H. The Structure and Content of the Galaxy, and Galactic Gamma Rays, 265 (NASA CP-002, 1976).

  39. 39

    Smith, L. F., Biermann, P. & Mezger, P. G. Astr. Astrophys. 66, 65 (1978).

  40. 40

    Guibert, J., Lequeux, J. & Villefond, F. Astr. Astrophys. 68, 1 (1978).

  41. 41

    Burton, W. B. A. Rev. Astr. Astrophys. 14, 275 (1976).

  42. 42

    Strong, A. W. & Worrall, D. M. J. Phys. A 9, 823 (1976).

  43. 43

    Strong, A. W., Wolfendale, A. W., Bennett, K. & Wills, R. D. Proc. 12th ESLAB Symp., 167 (ESA SP-124, 1977).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Max-Planck-Institut für Physik und Astrophysik, Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-8046, Garching, FRG

    • K. Pinkau

Authors

  1. Search for K. Pinkau in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/277017a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.