Article | Published:

Precambrian geological history and the origin of the Metazoa

Abstract

The Hargraves model of the physical world of the Precambrian challenges the traditional view of the geophysical evolution of the Earth. Its implications on the sudden appearance late in the Precambrian of multicellular organisms are discussed.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Berkner, C. V. & Marshall, L. C. in The Origins and Evolution of Atmospheres and Oceans (eds. Brancuzio, C. J. & Cameron, A. G. W.) (Wiley, New York, 1964).

  2. 2

    Berkner, C. V. & Marshall, L. C. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 53, 1215–1225 (1965).

  3. 3

    Fisher, A. G. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 53, 1205–1215 (1965).

  4. 4

    Cloud, P. E., Jr in Evolution and Environment (ed. Drake, E. T.) (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1968).

  5. 5

    Towe, K. M. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 65, 781–788 (1970).

  6. 6

    Schopf, J. W. Biol. Rev. 45, 319–352 (1970).

  7. 7

    Schopf, J. W., Haugh, B. N., Molnar, R. E. & Satterthwaite, D. F. J. Paleontol. 47, 1–9 (1973).

  8. 8

    Stanley, S. M. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 1486–1489 (1973).

  9. 9

    Hargraves, R. B. Science 193, 363–371 (1976).

  10. 10

    Engel, A. E. J. Science 140, 143–152 (1963).

  11. 11

    Anhaeusser, C. R. in Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences (eds Donath, F. A., Stehli, F. G. & Wetherill, G. W.) 3 (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 1975).

  12. 12

    Windley, B. F. Nature 270, 426–428 (1977).

  13. 13

    Saxena, S. K. Science 198, 614–617(1977).

  14. 14

    Schopf, J. W. in Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences (ed. Donath, F. A.) (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 1975).

  15. 15

    Brock, T. D. in The Biology of Blue-Green Algae (eds Carr, N. G. & Whitton, B. A.) (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1973).

  16. 16

    Barghoorn, E. S. & Tyler, S. A. Science 152, 758–763 (1965).

  17. 17

    Cloud, P. E., Jr Science 148, 27–35 (1965).

  18. 18

    Golubic, S. in The Biology of Blue-Green Algae (eds Carr, N. G. & Whitton, B. A.) (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1973).

  19. 19

    Goodwin, A. M. Econ. Geol. 68, 915–933 (1973).

  20. 20

    Chamberlain, W. M. & Marland, G. Nature 265, 135–136 (1977).

  21. 21

    Ryther, J. H., Science 166, 72–76 (1969).

  22. 22

    Eppley, R. W., Renger, E. H., Venrick, E. L. & Mullin, M. M. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 534–551 (1973).

  23. 23

    Whitton, B. A. in The Biology of Blue-Green Algae (eds Carr, N. G. & Whitton, B. A.) (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1973).

  24. 24

    Menzies, R. J., George, R. Y. & Rowe, G. T. Abyssal Environment and Ecology of the World Oceans (Wiley, New York, 1973).

  25. 25

    Smith, K. L., Jr Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 939–944 (1974).

  26. 26

    Menzies, R. J. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 48, 339–358 (1962).

  27. 27

    Hyman, L. H. The Invertebrates: Smaller Coelomate Groups (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

  28. 28

    Hand, C. Syst. Zool. 8, 191–202 (1959).

  29. 29

    Clark, R. B. Dynamics in Metazoan Evolution (Clarendon, Oxford, 1964).

  30. 30

    Trueman, E. R. The Locomotion of Soft-Bodied Animals (Edward Arnold, London, 1975).

  31. 31

    Barghoorn, E. S. & Schopf, J. W. Science 152, 758–763 (1966).

  32. 32

    Hofmann, H. J. J. Paleontal. 50, 1040–1073 (1976).

  33. 33

    Horodyski, R. J. & Bloeser, B. Science 199, 682–684 (1978).

  34. 34

    Bloeser, B., Schopf, J. W., Horodyski, R. J. & Breed, W. J. Science 195, 676–679 (1977).

  35. 35

    Stasek, C. R. in Chemical Zoology (eds Florkin, M. & Scheer, B. J.) 7 (Academic, New York, 1972).

  36. 36

    Salvini-Plawen, L. v. Malacologia 9, 191–216 (1969).

  37. 37

    Alexander, R. McN. Animal Mechanics (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1968).

  38. 38

    Gray, J. Animal Locomotion (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1968).

  39. 39

    Wainwright, S. A., Biggs, W. D., Currey, J. D. & Gosline, J. M. Mechanical Design in Organisms (John Wiley, New York, 1976).

  40. 40

    Cowen, R. Evolution 27, 696–701 (1973).

  41. 41

    Valentine, J. W. Am. Zool. 15, 391–404.

  42. 42

    Glaessner, M. F. & Wade, M. Paleontology 9, 599–628 (1966).

  43. 43

    Glaessner, M. F. Bull. geol. Soc. Am. 82, 509–514 (1971).

  44. 44

    Glaessner, M. F. Lethaia 2, 369–393 (1969).

  45. 45

    Goldring, R. & Curnow, C. N. J. geol. Soc. Austr. 14, 195–214 (1967).

  46. 46

    Webby, B. D. Lethaia 3, 79–109 (1970).

  47. 47

    Stanley, S. M. Paleobiology 2, 209–219 (1976).

  48. 48

    Durham, J. W. Proc. North Am. paleontol. Conv., Chicago, Pt. H., 1104–1131 (1971).

  49. 49

    Knoll, A. H. & Barghoorn, E. S. Science 190, 52–54 (1975).

  50. 50

    Golubic, S. & Hofmann, H. J. J. Paleontol. 50, 1074–1082 (1976).

  51. 51

    Rhoads, D. C. & Morse, J. W. Lethaia 4, 413–428 (1971).

  52. 52

    Valentine, J. W. Evolutionary Paleocology of the Marine Biosphere (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1973).

  53. 53

    Alexander, R. McN. Size and Shape (Edward Arnold, London, 1971).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.