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‘1/fnoise’ in music and speech


THE power spectrum S(f), of many fluctuating physical variables, V(t), is ‘1/f-like’, varying as f−γ (0.5γ1.5), over many decades of frequency (see ref. 1 for review). We have found that loudness fluctuations in music and speech, and pitch (melody) fluctuations in music exhibit 1/f power spectra.

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  1. van der Ziel, A., Noise: Sources, Characterization, Measurement, 106 (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970).

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  2. See, for example, Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, 585 (McGraw-Hill, 1965).

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  3. van der Ziel, A., Physica, 16, 359 (1950).

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VOSS, R., CLARKE, J. ‘1/fnoise’ in music and speech. Nature 258, 317–318 (1975).

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