Letter | Published:

Unique form of tool-using in two gastropod molluscs (Trochidae)

Abstract

TOOL-USING, the ability to manipulate an object as a functional extension of the body, has been described in a number of vertebrate and invertebrate species1. Although earlier workers regarded it as an indication of insight learning, its significance as a behavioural adaptation2,3, possibly arising through the novel use of a pre-existing behaviour pattern4, has been stressed in recent studies.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Thorpe, W. H., Learning and Instinct in Animals (Methuen, London, 1963).

  2. 2

    Goodall, J., Nature, 201, 1264–1266 (1963).

  3. 3

    Hall, K. R. L., Curr. Anthrop., 4, 479–494 (1963).

  4. 4

    Alcock, J., Evolution, 26, 464–473 (1972).

  5. 5

    Weber, H., Z. vergl. Physiol., 3, 389–474 (1926).

  6. 6

    Yonge, C. M., J. mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 21, 687–703 (1932).

  7. 7

    Miller, S. L., Proc. malac. Soc. Lond., 41, 233–261 (1974).

  8. 8

    Feder, H. M., Ecology, 40, 505–512 (1963).

  9. 9

    Stohler, R., Veliger, 6 (suppl.), 77–81 (1964).

  10. 10

    Paine, R. T., Ecology, 50, 950–961 (1969).

  11. 11

    Paine, R. T., Limn. Oceanogr., 16, 89–98 (1971).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.