RANDOM X inactivation makes the female mammal a natural mosaic for clones of cells having either the maternally derived X (Xm) or paternally derived one (Xp) which is genetically inactive1. There are, however, instances in which inactivation is obviously not random2–7. Non-randomness was inferred from studies made on differentiated cells remote from early embryonic cells in which inactivation occurred. Thus it is not clear whether the randomness of the X inactivation process was influenced or whether cell selection occurring after random inactivation was responsible for the ultimate non-random appearance4–9. In an effort to determine the embryonic stage at which the X chromosome initiates differentiation in famale mouse embryos heterozygous for Cattanach's translocaton10, we found that the mosaic composition was consistently biased in extraembryonic membranes, whereas it was not necessarily so in the embryonic body.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Genome Biology Open Access 14 March 2023
Biology of Sex Differences Open Access 16 September 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 06 May 2022
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 51 print issues and online access
$199.00 per year
only $3.90 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Lyon, M. F., Nature, 190, 372–373 (1961).
Lyon, M. F., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 259, 41–52 (1970).
Lyon, M. F., Biol. Rev., 47, 1–35 (1972).
Hamerton, J. L., Giannelli, F., Collins, F., Hallett, J., Fryer, A., and McGuire, V. M. Nature, 222, 1277–1278 (1969).
Giannelli, F., and Hamerton, J. L., Nature, 232, 315–319 (1971).
Hamerton, J. L., Richardson, B. J., Gee, P. A., Allen, W. R., and Short, R. V., Nature, 232, 312–315 (1971).
Cohen, M. M., and Rattazzi, M. C., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 68, 544–548 (1971).
Mukherjee, B. B., Mukherjee, A. B., and Mukherjee, A. B., Nature, 228, 1321–1322 (1970).
Mukherjee, B. B., and Milet, R. G., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 69, 37–39 (1972).
Cattanach, B. M., Z. Vererbungsl., 92, 165–182 (1961).
Francke, U., and Nesbitt, M. N., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 68, 2918–2920 (1971).
Kouri, R. E., Miller, D. A., Miller, O. J., Dev, V. G., Grewal, M. S., and Hutton, J. J., Genetics, 69, 129–132 (1971).
Ohno, S., and Cattanach, B. M., Cytogenetics, 1, 129–140 (1962).
Evans, H. J., Ford, C. E., Lyon, M. F., and Gray, J., Nature, 206 900–903 (1965).
Nesbitt, M. N., and Gartler, S. M., Cytogenetics, 9, 212–221 (1970).
Rattazzi, M. C., and Cohen, M. M., Nature, 237, 393–395 (1972).
Ray, M., Gee, P. A., Richardson, B. J., and Hamerton, J. L., Nature, 237, 396–397 (1972).
Takagi, N., Expl Cell Res., 86, 127–135 (1974).
Dutrillaux, B., Laurent, C., Couturier, J., and Lejeune, J., C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci. Paris, 276, 3179–3181 (1973).
Dutrillaux, B., and Fosse, A.-M., Annls Genet., 17, 207–211 (1974).
Wroblewska, J., and Dyban, A. P., Stain Technol., 44, 147–150 (1969).
Takagi, N., and Oshimura, M., Expl Cell Res., 78, 127–135 (1973).
Drews, U., Blecher, S. R., Owen, D. A., and Ohno, S., Cell, 1, 3–8 (1974).
Ohno, S., Geller, L. N., and Kan, J., Cell, 1, 175–184 (1974).
Cattanach, B. M., and Perez, J. N., Genet. Res., 15, 43–53 (1970).
Cooper, D. W., Nature, 230, 292–294 (1971).
Brown, S. W., and Chandra, S. H., Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 70, 195–199 (1973).
About this article
Cite this article
TAKAGI, N., SASAKI, M. Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in the extraembryonic membranes of the mouse. Nature 256, 640–642 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1038/256640a0
This article is cited by
Genome Biology (2023)
Biology of Sex Differences (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Chromosome Research (2022)
BAF complex-mediated chromatin relaxation is required for establishment of X chromosome inactivation
Nature Communications (2022)