Letter | Published:

Carrier preimmunisation in the anti-hapten response of a marine fish


A STRONG antibody response in mammals and birds requires collaboration of two types of antigen-recognising lymphocytes, T and B. Only the B lymphocyte gives rise to antibody-producing plasma cells. This concept is partly based on the observed synergistic effect of thymic (non-B) cells and bone marrow (non-T) cells in antibody responses1–3. Another line of evidence comes from immunisation with an antigen having several antigenic determinants such as A–B–C–D, which can be separated into portions. A strong synergistic effect in an antibody response against A is found by combining lymphocytes primed with one part of the antigen (B–C–D = carrier) with lymphocytes primed with another part (A = hapten) and challenging the mixture with A–B–C–D (refs 4 and 5). T lymphocytes seem to be the relevant cells in the carrier-primed population6.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Claman, H. N., Chaperon, E. A., and Triplett, R. F. Proc. Soc exp. Biol. Med., 122, 1167 (1966).

  2. 2

    Davies, A. J. S., Leuchars, E., Wallis, V., Sinclair, N. R. S. C., and Elliott, E. V., in Advances in Transplantation (edit. by Dausset, J., Hamburger, J., and Mathe, G.) (Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1968).

  3. 3

    Mitchell, G. F., and Miller, J. F. A. P., J. exp. Med., 128, 821 (1968).

  4. 4

    Mitchison, N. A., Rajewsky, K., and Taylor, R. B., Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure (edit. by Sterzl, J., and Riha, I.), 547–561 (Academia, Prague, 1970).

  5. 5

    Mitchison, N. A., Eur. J. Immun. 1, 18 (1971).

  6. 6

    Raff, M. C., Nature, 226, 1257 (1970).

  7. 7

    Feldman, M., Erb, P., and Kontiainen, S., Proc. Kroc Conf. Lymphocytes (edit. by Williams, R. M.) (Rover, New York, 1974).

  8. 8

    Rajewsky, K., Schirrmacher, V., Nase, S., and Jerne, N. K., J. exp. Med., 129, 1131 (1969).

  9. 9

    Paul, W. E., Katz, D. H., and Benacerraf, B., J. Immun., 107, 685 (1970).

  10. 10

    Katz, D. H., Paul, W. E., Goidl, E. A., and Benacerraf, B., J. exp. Med., 132, 261 (1970).

  11. 11

    Hurme, M., Kontiainen, S., Seppälä, I. J. T., and Mäkelä, O., Eur. J. Immun., 3, 191 (1973).

  12. 12

    Becker, M., and Mäkelä, O., Immunochemistry (in the press).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.