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Xenopus from the Palaeocene of Brazil and its zoogeographic importance

Naturevolume 254pages4850 (1975) | Download Citation

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Abstract

THE African frog Xenopus (a member of the family Pipidae), formerly found in Miocene1,2 and Recent deposits in Africa, is described here from the Palaeocene ( 60 Myr) of Brazil. Extant pipids are aquatic freshwater frogs, occurring in sub-saharan Africa (Xenopus, Hymenochirus, Pseudhymenochirus) and northern South America (Pipa, Protopipa, Hemipa). They display a mosaic of primitive and specialised characteristics and are generally placed as an ancient offshoot of early anuran stock. Both fossil and recent occurrences of the Pipidae are consistent with an ancient distribution exclusively across the southern continent3,5.

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References

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    Ahl, E., in Die Diamantenwuste Südwest-Afrikas (edit. by Kaiser, E.), 141 (D. Reimer, Berlin, 1926).

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    Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., Notes Serv. geol. Maroc, 27, 43 (1966).

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    Estes, R., and Reig, O., in Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans (edit. by Vial, J.) (University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1973).

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    Creer, K., ibid.

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    Estes, R., and Wake, M., Nature, 239, 228 (1972).

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    Reig, O., Ameghiniana, Rev. Assoc. paleontol. Argentina, 2, 73 (1961).

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    Brain, F. de., et al., C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci. Paris, 279, 469 (1974).

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Zoology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, 92182

    • RICHARD ESTES

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https://doi.org/10.1038/254048a0

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