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Cosmological effects of primordial black holes


ALTHOUGH only black holes with masses ; 1.5M are expected to result from stellar evolution1 black holes with much smaller masses may be present throughout the Universe2. These small black holes are the result of density fluctuations in the very early Universe. Density fluctuations on very large mass scales were certainly present in the early universe as is evident from the irregular distribution of galaxies in the sky3. Evidence of density fluctuations on scales smaller than the size of galaxies is generally thought to have been destroyed during the era of radiation recombination4. But fluctuations in the metric of order unity may be fossilised in the form of black holes. Observation of black holes, particularly those with masses M < M, could thus provide information concerning conditions in the very early Universe.

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CHAPLINE, G. Cosmological effects of primordial black holes. Nature 253, 251–252 (1975).

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