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The Logic of Animal Conflict


Conflicts between animals of the same species usually are of “limited war” type, not causing serious injury. This is often explained as due to group or species selection for behaviour benefiting the species rather than individuals. Game theory and computer simulation analyses show, however, that a “limited war” strategy benefits individual animals as well as the species.

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SMITH, J., PRICE, G. The Logic of Animal Conflict. Nature 246, 15–18 (1973).

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