A RAT model for studying the induction of bladder cancer has been developed using intravesicular instillations of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU1. A single dose of 2.0 mg MNU into a 150 g Wistar rat acts as an initiator, but does not produce carcinoma unless its action is promoted by further doses. If three further instillations are given, at bi-weekly intervals, all animals develop either transitional or transitional plus squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder epithelium1.
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HICKS, R., WAKEFIELD, J. & CHOWANIEC, J. Co-carcinogenic Action of Saccharin in the Chemical Induction of Bladder Cancer. Nature 243, 347–349 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1038/243347a0
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