Letter | Published:

Detection of Relativistic Solar Particles before the Hα Maximum of a Solar Flare

Abstract

WE report here the first direct detection of relativistic solar protons before the Hα maximum phase of a solar flare and in near coincidence with the maximum phase of the white-light flare. These observations have important implications for theories of particle acceleration during flares and for the appropriate particle injection times to be used in the modelling of solar particle events by diffusion theories.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Bruzek, A., Proc. Conf. Plasma Instabilities in Astrophys., 71 (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1969).

  2. 2

    Sweet, P. A., Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 7, 149 (1969).

  3. 3

    Simon, P., and Svestka, Z., Annals IQSY, 3, 469 (MIT Press, 1969).

  4. 4

    Svestka, Z., Solar Phys., 13, 471 (1970).

  5. 5

    Syrovatskii, S. I., Comm. Astrophys. Space Phys., 4, 65 (1972).

  6. 6

    Solar-Geophysical Data, No. 337, Part 1 (US Dept. Commerce, Boulder, Color., 1972).

  7. 7

    Rust, D. M., Sky Telescope, 44, 226 (1972).

  8. 8

    Petschek, H. E., AAS/NASA Symp. on Physics of Solar Flares (edit. by Hess, W. N.), 425 (NASA, Washington, 1964).

  9. 9

    Elliot, H., Planet. Space Sci., 12, 657 (1964).

  10. 10

    Elliot, H., Solar Flares and Space Res., 356 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969).

  11. 11

    Burlaga, L. F., J. Geophys. Res., 72, 4449 (1967).

  12. 12

    Parker, E. N., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 17, Suppf. A-11, 563 (1962).

  13. 13

    Roederer, J. G., Space Research III, 518 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1961).

  14. 14

    Shea, M. A., Smart, D. F., and McCracken, K. G., Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Report, 65 (1965).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.