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Mohty M, Bilger K, Jourdan E, Kuentz M, Michallet M, Bourhis JH et al. Higher doses of CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells are associated with increased mortality from chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic HLA-identical sibling transplantation. Leukemia 2003; 17: 869–875.
Zaucha JM, Gooley T, Bensinger WI, Heimfeld S, Chauncey TR, Zaucha R et al. CD34 cell dose in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell grafts affects engraftment kinetics and development of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease after human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation. Blood 2001; 98: 3221–3227.
Baron F, Maris MB, Storer BE, Sandmaier BM, Panse JP, Chauncey TR et al. High doses of transplanted CD34+ cells are associated with rapid T-cell engraftment and lessened risk of graft rejection, but not more graft-versus-host disease after nonmyeloablative conditioning and unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation. Leukemia 2005; 19: 822–828.
Bittencourt H, Rocha V, Chevret S, Socie G, Esperou H, Devergie A et al. Association of CD34 cell dose with hematopoietic recovery, infections, and other outcomes after HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplantation. Blood 2002; 99: 2726–2733.
Pabst C, Schirutschke H, Ehninger G, Bornhauser M, Platzbecker U . The graft content of donor T cells expressing gamma delta TCR+ and CD4+foxp3+ predicts the risk of acute graft versus host disease after transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells from unrelated donors. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 2916–2922.
Yakoub-Agha I, Saule P, Depil S, Micol JB, Grutzmacher C, Boulanger-Villard F et al. A high proportion of donor CD4(+) T cells expressing the lymph node-homing chemokine receptor CCR7 increases incidence and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancy. Leukemia 2006; 20: 1557–1565.
Reddy P, Ferrara JL . Immunobiology of acute graft-versus-host disease. Blood Rev 2003; 17: 187–194.
Takeda K, Akira S . Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int Immunol 2005; 17: 1–14.
Xu D, Komai-Koma M, Liew FY . Expression and function of Toll-like receptor on T cells. Cell Immunol 2005; 233: 85–89.
Lorenz E, Schwartz DA, Martin PJ, Gooley T, Lin MT, Chien JW et al. Association of TLR4 mutations and the risk for acute GVHD after HLA-matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001; 7: 384–387.
Liu H, Komai-Koma M, Xu D, Liew FY . Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 7048–7053.
Komai-Koma M, Jones L, Ogg GS, Xu DM, Liew FY . TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 3029–3034.
Pierik M, Joossens S, Van Steen K, Van Schuerbeek N, Vlietinck R, Rutgeerts P et al. Toll-like receptor-1, -2, and -6 polymorphisms influence disease extension in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006; 12: 1–8.
Thiede C, Bornhauser M, Ehninger G . Evaluation of STR informativity for chimerism testing—comparative analysis of 27 STR systems in 203 matched related donor recipient pairs. Leukemia 2004; 18: 248–254.
Schroder NWJ, Hermann C, Hamann L, Gobel UB, Hartung T, Schumann RR . High frequency of polymorphism Arg753Gln of the Toll-like receptor-2 gene detected by a novel allele-specific PCR. J Mol Med 2003; 81: 368–372.
Papaconstantinou L, Theodoropoulos G, Gazouli M, Panoussopouios D, Mantzaris GJ, Felekouras E et al. Association between mutations in the CARD15/NOD2 gene and colorectal cancer in a Greek population. Int J Cancer 2005; 114: 433–435.
Khor CC, Chapman SJ, Vannberg FO, Dunne A, Murphy C, Ling EY et al. A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. Nat Genet 2007; 39: 523–528.
We thank V Schwarze, A Maiwald and D Doehler for providing assistance with stem cell grafts and Dr K Hölig and her team for performing apheresis procedure in all donors. We are also very grateful to Dr C Thiede and his laboratory for preparation of DNA samples.