Letter | Published:

The Universe as a Black Hole

Naturevolume 240pages298299 (1972) | Download Citation



SINCE Einstein applied his general theory of relativity to study the structure of the universe as a whole1, cosmologists have wondered if the universe is geometrically closed or open. Neither theory nor observation has been able to settle this question unambiguously. Several authors have hoped that the universe may after all be a closed, yet unbounded, system. This would solve many problems regarding the nature and origin of the universe, and would fit many of the observations of distant sources made at radio, optical and other wavelengths2. Here I demonstrate that the universe may not only be a closed structure (as perceived by its inhabitants at the present epoch) but may also be a black hole, confined to a localized region of space which cannot expand without limit.

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  1. 1

    Einstein, A., Berlin Sitzungsberichte, 142 (1971). English translation in The Principle of Relativity (Methuen, London, 1923).

  2. 2

    Nature (News and Views), 232, 440 (1971).

  3. 3

    Robertson, H. P., and Walker, A. G., Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 67, 82 (1955).

  4. 4

    Pathria, R. K., The Theory of Relativity (Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 1963).

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    Robertson, H. P., and Noonan, T. W., Relativity and Cosmology (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1968).

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    Sandage, A. R., Observatory, 88, 91 (1968).

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    Rindler, W., Essential Relativity (Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1969).

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  1. Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario

    • R. K. PATHRIA


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