Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The Universe as a Black Hole

Abstract

SINCE Einstein applied his general theory of relativity to study the structure of the universe as a whole1, cosmologists have wondered if the universe is geometrically closed or open. Neither theory nor observation has been able to settle this question unambiguously. Several authors have hoped that the universe may after all be a closed, yet unbounded, system. This would solve many problems regarding the nature and origin of the universe, and would fit many of the observations of distant sources made at radio, optical and other wavelengths2. Here I demonstrate that the universe may not only be a closed structure (as perceived by its inhabitants at the present epoch) but may also be a black hole, confined to a localized region of space which cannot expand without limit.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. Einstein, A., Berlin Sitzungsberichte, 142 (1971). English translation in The Principle of Relativity (Methuen, London, 1923).

    Google Scholar 

  2. Nature (News and Views), 232, 440 (1971).

  3. Robertson, H. P., and Walker, A. G., Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 67, 82 (1955).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Pathria, R. K., The Theory of Relativity (Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 1963).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  5. Robertson, H. P., and Noonan, T. W., Relativity and Cosmology (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1968).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  6. Sandage, A. R., Observatory, 88, 91 (1968).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. Rindler, W., Essential Relativity (Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1969).

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

PATHRIA, R. The Universe as a Black Hole. Nature 240, 298–299 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1038/240298a0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/240298a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing