Observational Upper Limits to the Electromagnetic Energy radiated by Normal Galaxies

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Abstract

Low1 has suggested that typical galaxies emit energies of the order of their present rest mass energies during their lifetime of 1010 yr. The observations2 on which this theory is based indicate that the flux peaks sharply at an emitted wavelength of 70 µm. In this report we indicate the constraints which can be put on such models from observations of the isotropic background radiation at these and longer wavelengths. It will be seen that the present upper limits on the flux still allow most of the energy emitted by galaxies to be in the infrared region of the spectrum.

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