High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Fibre Surfaces

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Abstract

KNOWLEDGE of the internal structure of carbon fibres, which are derived from polyacrylonitrile and rayon by carbonization in special conditions1–3, has increased significantly in the past few years. Investigations using small-angle and conventional X-ray diffraction4–9, electron diffraction6,10,11, intercalation with caesium12, helium density determinations6, polarized light microscopy11, and high-resolution electron microscopy6,13, have established that the carbon layers form long (greater than 100 nm) ribbons with preferred orientation of the layers parallel to the fibre axis. A number of these parallel ribbons form a so-called microfibril6, the average thickness (or stack size) of which, in fibres that have been heat treated to 1,300 K or beyond, is in the range 3–10 nm. The microfibrils are believed to be wrinkled and bent6,9 and they may even be twisted to form rather inaccessible voids. Within the layers, the C–C bond distance9 is 1.416±0.007 A, and for this, and other reasons6, the bonding is believed to involve only sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. There is no evidence of cross-linking between the layers (which contain a few per cent of structural defects9) perpendicular to the axis of the microfibrils.

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BARBER, M., SWIFT, P., EVANS, E. et al. High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Fibre Surfaces. Nature 227, 1131–1132 (1970) doi:10.1038/2271131a0

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