Origin and Dynamical Behaviour of Thermal Protons in the Venusian Ionosphere

Article metrics


An important source of thermal H+ and/or D+ has been overlooked in the ionosphere of Venus which supports the choice of H+ and/or D+ as the dominant light ion at high altitudes.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Snyder, C. W., Science, 158, 1665 (1967).

  2. 2

    Mariner Stanford Group, Science, 158, 1678 (1967).

  3. 3

    Kliore, A., Levy, G. S., Cain, D. L., Fjeldbo, G., and Rasool, S. I., Science, 158, 1683 (1967).

  4. 4

    McElroy, M. B., J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 574 (1968).

  5. 5

    McElroy, M. B., J. Geophys. Res., 74, 29 (1969).

  6. 6

    McElroy, M. B., J. Geophys. Res., 73, 1513 (1968).

  7. 7

    Dessler, A. J., in The Atmospheres of Venus and Mars (edit. by Brandt, J. C., and McElroy, M. B.), 241 (Gordon and Breach Pub. Co., New York, 1968).

  8. 8

    Johnson, F. S., J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 658 (1968).

  9. 9

    McElroy, M. B., and Strobel, D. F., J. Geophys. Res., 74, 1118 (1969).

  10. 10

    Donahue, T. M., J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 568 (1968).

  11. 11

    Bridge, H. S., Lazarus, A. J., Snyder, C. W., Smith, E. J., Davis, L., Coleman, P. J., and Jones, D. E., Science, 158, 1669 (1967).

  12. 12

    McElroy, M. B., and Hunten, D. M., J. Geophys. Res., 74, 1720 (1969).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

BANKS, P., AXFORD, W. Origin and Dynamical Behaviour of Thermal Protons in the Venusian Ionosphere. Nature 225, 924–926 (1970) doi:10.1038/225924a0

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.