Letter | Published:

Conducted Impulses in the Skin of Young Tadpoles

Nature volume 222, pages 12651266 (28 June 1969) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

THE terms action-potential and impulse are often considered interchangeable1. But while action potentials would include impulses together with graded potentials, it may be useful to define impulses as all or none potential changes with a constant amplitude and shape unaffected by changes in the strength or quality of the stimulus1. Impulses, so defined, are usually associated with conduction in nerve and muscle but are also found in plants2, protozoans3, and may be common in epithelia of coelenterates but are only definitely established in some hydrozoan jellyfish4,5. The first example that I know of impulses from non-nervous and non-muscular tissue in a vertebrate is described here from the skin of clawed toad (Xenopuslaevis) tadpoles.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , The Conduction of the Nervous Impulse (Liverpool University Press, 1964).

  2. 2.

    , Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 20, 49 (1966).

  3. 3.

    , and , J. Gen. Physiol., 52, 258 (1968).

  4. 4.

    , Amer. Zool., 5, 439 (1965).

  5. 5.

    , and , J. Gen. Physiol., 52, 600 (1968).

  6. 6.

    , and , Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin) (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1956).

  7. 7.

    , Quart. J. Micros. Sci., 38, 465 (1896).

  8. 8.

    , J. Morphol., 60, 279 (1936).

  9. 9.

    , and , Z. Zellforsch., 67, 96 (1965).

  10. 10.

    , J. Gen. Physiol., 47, 795 (1964).

  11. 11.

    , dissertation, Univ. Bristol (1964).

  12. 12.

    , CR Acad. Sci., 171, 680 (1920).

  13. 13.

    , J. Cell. Biol., 31, C1 (1966).

  14. 14.

    , Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 137, 441 (1966).

  15. 15.

    , , and , Proc. US Nat. Acad. Sci., 55, 328 (1966).

  16. 16.

    , The Elementary Nervous System (Lippincott, Philadelphia and London, 1919).

  17. 17.

    , CR Acad. Sci., 171, 408 (1920).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Zoology, University of Bristol.

    • ALAN ROBERTS

Authors

  1. Search for ALAN ROBERTS in:

About this article

Publication history

Received

Revised

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/2221265a0

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.