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Solar Energy without Neutrinos: Fusion Catalysis by Quarks

Nature volume 222, pages 12381240 (28 June 1969) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Negatively charged quarks and antiquarks may catalyse fusion in light elements. The solar energy output could be provided by quark catalysis of the alpha fusion reaction without production of neutrinos. The required abundance of quarks is 10−33 per proton if there are no heavy elements inside the Sun and is 10−14 per proton if heavy element occurrence is like that in the solar system 10−5. In the latter case the reaction rate is strongly temperature dependent.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. University of Colorado and The RAND Corporation

    • L. MARSHALL LIBBY
  2. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California

    • F. J. THOMAS

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https://doi.org/10.1038/2221238a0

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