Letter | Published:

Accumulation of Anthoxanthins and Iminoacids in Leaf Galls of Salix fragilis L.

Naturevolume 212pages514516 (1966) | Download Citation



GALL formation in the Salicaceae is common, and sawflies are frequently responsible. Investigation of the chemical changes initiated by the insects was made on the leaf galls of Salix fragilis L. produced by the sawfly Pontania proxima Lep. In preliminary studies, Challen1 suggested that one phytochemical change initiated by P. proxima might be an accumulation of catechins, leucoanthocyanidins and a ninhydrin positive substance. A red pigment, cyanidin-3-monoglucoside, was found in young leaves and galls by Blunden and Challen2. In the present investigation a concentrated methanolic extract of fresh galls was purified by band chromatography on Whatman No. 3MM paper, using distilled water as the solvent. The leucoanthocyanidin and cateohin band, detected by spraying a marker strip of the chromatogram with vanillin (equal volumes of hydrochloric acid B.P., and a mixture of vanillin 2 per cent w/v + acetaldehyde 1 per cent v/v in 95 per cent ethanol), was cut out and eluted with 2 N hydrochloric acid. The leucoanthocyanidins were converted to their anthocyanidins by the method of Bate-Smith3 and purified by band chromatography. The eluted pigment was subjected to paper chromatography using methods recommended by Harborne4. The anthocyanidin had similar RF values to a reference sample of cyanidin chloride in all three solvent systems used.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Challen, S. B., J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 11, 223 T (1959).

  2. 2

    Blunden, G., and Challen, S. B., Nature, 208, 388 (1965).

  3. 3

    Bate-Smith, E. C., Biochem. J., 58, 122 (1954).

  4. 4

    Harborne, J. B., J. Chromatog., 1, 473 (1958).

  5. 5

    Harborne, J. B., Biochem. J., 70, 22 (1958).

  6. 6

    Lederer, E., and Lederer, M., Chromatography, second ed., 380 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1957).

  7. 7

    Roberts, E. A. H., and Wood, D. J., Biochem. J., 49, 414 (1951).

  8. 8

    Swain, T., and Hillis, W. E., J. Sci. Food and Agric., 1, 63 (1959).

  9. 9

    Virtanen, A. I., and Kari, S., Acta Chem. Scand., 9, 170 (1955).

  10. 10

    Dawson, R. M. C., Elliott, D. C., Elliott, W. H., and Jones, K. M., Data for Biochemical Research, 222 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1959).

  11. 11

    Witkop, B., and Foltz, C. M., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 79, 192 (1957).

  12. 12

    Virtanen, A. I., and Gmelin, E., Acta Chem. Scand., 13, 1244 (1959).

  13. 13

    Sehgal, O. P., and Boone, D. M., Phytopathology, 54, 775 (1964).

  14. 14

    Hecht, H., and Fritz, A., Bayer Landwirtsch. Jahrb., 39, 167 (1962) from Chem. Ab., 61, 86236 (1964).

  15. 15

    Diener, T. O., and Dekker, C. A., Phytopathology, 44, 643 (1954).

  16. 16

    Seitz, E. W., and Hochster, R. M., Life Sci., 3, 1033 (1964).

  17. 17

    Steward, F. C., Thompson, J. F., and Pollard, J. K., J. Exp. Bot., 9, 1 (1958).

Download references

Author information


  1. School of Pharmacy, Portsmouth College of Technology, Portsmouth



  1. Search for GERALD BLUNDEN in:

  2. Search for STEPHEN B. CHALLEN in:

  3. Search for BRIAN JAQUES in:

About this article

Publication history

Issue Date




By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.