True Stress to Fracture and Hyper-velocity Crater Depth


SERIOUS discrepancies and considerable variations have been observed in the numerous empirical, semi-empirical, and theoretical equations which have been proposed to describe craters formed in metal targets as a result of hyper-velocity impact1. These inconsistencies in the mathematical models can be attributed to a paucity of precise engineering data and to a basic disagreement about the mechanism of impact. One group of experimenters has attempted to relate the extent of hyper-velocity damage to the mechanical properties of the impacted target; another group has stressed the hydrodynamic model of cratering.


  1. 1

    Hermann, W., and Jones, A. H., “Survey of Hypervelocity Impact Information”, A.S.T.I.A., 267, 289 (September 1961).

  2. 2

    Atkins, W. W., and Halperson, S. M. (personal communication).

  3. 3

    Piacesi, R. (personal communication).

  4. 4

    Nunes, J., and Larson, F. R., Amer. Soc. Testing Mat. Proc., 61, 1349 (1961).

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ROLSTEN, R. True Stress to Fracture and Hyper-velocity Crater Depth. Nature 207, 1182 (1965).

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