Letter | Published:

Participation of Rat Liver Nuclei in Movements of Sodium



In vitro investigations of movements of sodium with muscular tissue seem to have shown that the non-extracellular sodium belongs to more than one phase1. The existence of either a membranous and a cellular phase2 or of two cellular phases with different degrees of order3 has been discussed. We wish to present some experimental findings which may well contribute to the interpretation of sodium transfer processes in animal tissue.


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    Harris, E. J., Trans. Farad. Soc., 46, 872 (1950).

  2. 2

    McLennan, H., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 24, 333 (1957); Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol., 267, 453 (1958).

  3. 3

    Simon, S. E., Johnstone, B. M., Shankly, K. H., and Shaw, F. H., J. Gen. Physiol., 43, 55 (1959).

  4. 4

    Langendorf, H., Siebert, G., Lorenz, I., Hannover, R., and Beyer, R., Biochem. Z., 335, 273 (1961).

  5. 5

    Siebert, G., Biochem. Z., 334, 369 (1961).

  6. 6

    Loewenstein, W. R., and Kanno, Y., Nature, 195, 462 (1962).

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