Does Quantum Mechanics Exclude Life?

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Schrödinger, E., What is Life ? (Camb. Univ. Press, 1944).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Bernal, J. D., The Physical Basis of Life (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1951).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Elsasser, W. M., The Physical Foundation of Biology (London: Pergamon Press, 1961).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Wigner, E. P., The Logic of Personal Knowledge, Essays presented to Michael Polanyi (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Mora, P. T., Nature, 199, 212 (1963).

    CAS  ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Wigner, E. P. (private communication).

  7. 7

    Landsberg, P. T., Proc. Roy. Soc. A., 262, 100 (1961).

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    von Neumann, J., Z. Phys., 57, 30 (1929).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    For references see, for example, Anderson, H. C., Oppenheim, I., Shuler, K. E., and Weiss, G. K., J. Math. Phys., 5, 522 (1964).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

LANDSBERG, P. Does Quantum Mechanics Exclude Life?. Nature 203, 928–930 (1964).

Download citation

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter for a daily update on COVID-19 science.
Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing