BARK rot of apple trees, caused by Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. and Cohn) Schroeter, has been reported from most of the world's major apple-growing areas. Outbreaks of this soil-borne disease are often epidemic in character and may result in the complete bark-girdling and death of many trees.
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SEWELL, G., WILSON, J. Branch, Stem and Collar Rot of Apple caused by Phytophthora Species of the ‘cactorum Group’. Nature 200, 1229 (1963). https://doi.org/10.1038/2001229a0